Text Figures

2.1 Trilobite structure using Eldredgeops rami 5

2.2 Trilobite structure using Kettneraspis tubercidata 6

2.3 The structure of the trilobite cephalon using Calymene species 8

2.4 Trilobite eyes 9

2.5 Cephalic sutures 9

2.6 Hxoskeletal pits or circular perforations 11

2.7 Ventral anatomy of the exoskeleton 12

2.8 Ontogeny of the trilobite 14

2.9 Trilobite exoskeletons with attached fauna or injury 18

2.10 Trilobite appendage reconstruction and nomenclature 19

2.11 Ventral anatomy and appendages 20

2.12 Internal anatomy of the trilobite 22

2.13 Trilobite shapes and functions 23

2.14 Trilobite traces 25

2.15 Trilobite injuries 27

2.16 Cryptolithus, the most-studied trilobite genus found in New York 28

3.1 fossil assemblages reflecting various conditions and timing of burial 34

3.2 Conditions for the formation of pyritized, well-preserved fossils 39

4.1 Time scale for Earth history and for the Paleozoic rocks in New York 44

4.2 Precambrian Grenville (1.0 BP) metamorphic/igneous rocks 46

4.3 Map showing the extent of the Grenville belt in eastern North America 47

4.4 Paleomagnetic reconstruction of the supercontinenl Rodinia 48

4.5 Position of the Laurentian plate and neighboring Baltica and Avalonia terranes from the Cambrian to the Devonian 49

4.6 Cambrian rocks in New York 50

4.7 New York in the Cambrian 52

4.8 Close-up of Upper Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone 53

4.9 Upper Cambrian limestones 54

4.10 Simplified stratigraphy of the Cambrian-Ordovician rocks in the Taconic allochthon 55

4.11 Lower Cambrian allochthonous beds of the low Taconic Mountains 56

4.12 Stratigraphic chart of the Ordovician exposures in New York 57 4.13A-C New York during the Early and early Middle Ordovician 58 4.13D-F New York during the Middle Ordovician 59

4.14 Details of the stratigraphy of the Chazy Group in northeastern New York 63

4.15 Flute casts on Austin Glen graywacke 65

4.16 Black River limestones 66

4.17 Middle Ordovician Black River Group 67

4.18 Close-up of sharp Black River/Trenton (Watertown-Napanee) contact 68

4.19 Close-up of storm beds in the Middle Ordovician Kings Falls Limestone 69

4.20 Maps of New York during late Middle Ordovician times 70

4.21 Middle Trenton at Trenton Falls 72

4.22 Middle Ordovician Trenton Group limestone 73

4.23 Trenton at Trenton Falls 74

4.24 Middle Ordovician Dolgeville and Utica rocks 77

4.25 New York maps during the late Middle Ordovician and the Upper Ordovician 79

4.26 Ordovician/Silurian unconformities 81

4.27 Stratigraphic chart of the Silurian rocks in New York 82

4.28 Ordovician-Silurian (Cherokee) unconformity/Ordovician-Lower Silurian succession 84

4.29 Maps of New York during Wenlock times 87

4.30 Irondequoit-Rochester bioherm at the upper part of the Lower Silurian Clinton Group 88

4.31 Mid Silurian successions 91

4.32 Silurian carbonates 92

4.33 Domal stromatolites 94

4.34 Composite stratigraphic chart for the northern and central parts of the Appalachian Basin 96

4.35 New York during the Early Devonian 97

4.36 Upper Silurian/Lower Devonian rocks 99

4.37 New York during the early Middle Devonian 103

4.38 Upper Silurian/Onondaga Limestone 104

4.39 Middle Devonian rocks 106

4.40 New York during the Middle Devonian Hamilton deposition 108

4.41 Devonian successions 113

4.42 Middle Devonian/Upper Devonian successions 114

4.43 Stratigraphy of the Upper Devonian and the upper Middle Devonian of New York 115

5.1 Lichids from the lower and lowest Middle Devonian of New York 125

5.2 Key cephalic differences between Dalmanitidae and Synphoriidae 136

5.3 Trilobites of the families Dalmanitidae and Synphoriidae 138

5.4 Lower Devonian and lower Middle Devonian phacopins 143

5.5 Features of New York Cryptolithus 164

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