Table

Classification of the Horned Dinosaurs Class Reptilia subclass Archosauria superorder Dinosauria order Omithischia suborder Ceratopsia infraorder Psittacosauria family Psittacosauridae Psittacosaurus infraorder Neoceratopsia family Protoceratopsidae Leptoceratops Protoceratops Montanoceratops Microceratops Bagaceratops Breviceratops Udanoceratops family Ceratopsidae subfamily Centrosaurinae Granger and Gregory 1923 Sternberg 1951 Bohlin 1953 Maryarfeka and Osm6lska 1975 Kurzanov 1990 Kurzanov...

Three Horned Face

Triceratopsl These names evoke such images of large, powerful, dare I even say sophisticated plant-eating dinosaurs. Their huge heads, bristling with sharp spikes and luxuriant bony frills, their solid, four-legged bodies, all suggest rhinoceros-like body plans run amok in the Cretaceous. Clearly these were animals to be reckoned with, not meek victims ready to bare their necks to the glistening teeth of a predator. Horned dinosaurs of the family Ceratopsidae are...

With Horns on Their Faces

THE CERATOPSIA or horn-faced dinosaurs are exquisite creatures. They include large, exotic dinosaurs, the ceratopsids, with wondrous ornaments on their heads, including dazzling combinations of horns over the nose and eyes and lengthy frills behind the skull, often enhanced with rococo tracery and detailing. The ceratopsids are found only in western North America, although perhaps someday soon they will be found in Asia as well. Ceratopsians also include small, lithe proto-ceratopsids, shared...

The Anatomy Of A Horned Dinosaur

ANATOMY is the study of the parts that make up the whole organism, plant or animal. Anatomy is a very old subject, probably about as old as human curiosity. Anatomists today often use light microscopes or electron microscopes and tend to call themselves cell biologists, structural biologists, electron microscopists, or anything else but anatomists in order to sound modern. Anatomy is vitally important for doctors and veterinarians, and it is the first subject that students training for the...

Triceratops After Marsh

Marsh died at the age of sixty-seven on March 18, 1899, after a long, genuinely distinguished, and productive scientific career. Not surpris ingly, he left many projects unfinished, among them the projected monograph of the Ceratopsia, for which he had overseen the preparation of a large number of superb lithographic plates and illustrations, again at government expense. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, Henry Fairfield Osborn enjoyed an honorary appointment as vertebrate paleontologist to...

The History Of Collecting Dinosaurs

Another thing to notice about Table 1.1 is that our knowledge of horned dinosaurs, and of course of all dinosaurs, has a history and a very colorful and interesting history it is, as we shall see. There was a time when no one knew anything about dinosaurs. Indeed, the recognition of fossils themselves as the remains of once-living plants and animals that inhabited an ancient world was a very difficult intellectual accom plishment that we too easily take for granted we too readily heap scorn...

The Fossil Record Of Horned Dinosaurs

Map Believed Triceratops Habitats

With ceratopsians, we are rather fortunate. Horned dinosaurs have one of the best fossil records of any group of dinosaurs. There are close to four hundred specimens in museum collections around the world. Twenty-three genera and perhaps thirty species have been described to date, with more to come.11 There is an average of more than 30 specimens per genus. Even if the extremely abundant Psittacosaurus and Protoceratops were eliminated from this tally, we would still be left with a respectable...

Info About Triceratops

PETER DODSON earned his B.Sc. in geology at the University of Ottawa in 1968, his M.Sc. in geology at the University of Alberta in 1970, and his Ph.D. in geology at Yale University in 1974. Since 1974 he has been a professor of anatomy in the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, where he is also a professor of geology. He has studied Late Cretaceous dinosaur faunas of Canada and the United States for many years. Recently his dinosaur research has taken him to India,...

Info

This exercise is not a rigorous one, but it seems to convey a reasonably consistent picture of the size of the animals in the deposit. Note that in our real animal, that is to say, NMC 2245, as in all ceratopsids, the humerus is not the same length as the femur but only about two-thirds the length of the femur. Thus the 355-mm femur of C. mariscalensis certainly comes from a smaller animal than the 352-mm humerus. Lehman concluded his work by diagnosing Chasmosaurus mariscalensis. He noted that...

Newer Developments And Modern Studies

Reconstructed skull of Pachyrhinosaurus canadensis 176 FIG. 6.2. Avaceratops lammersi skull 187 FIG. 6.3. Avaceratops lammersi skeleton 188 FIG. 6.4. Reconstruction of Avaceratops 18 9 FIG. 6.5. New horned dinosaurs at the Museum of the Rockies 196 CHAPTER SEVEN No HORNS AND NO FRILLS FIG. 7.1. Leptoceratopsgracilis skull 204 FIG. 7.2. Leptoceratops gracilis skeleton 2 06 FIG. 7.3. Velociraptor sizes up two specimens of Protoceratops 2 10 FIG. 7.4. Protoceratops andrewsi skeleton 214...

Torosaurusa Bull Lizard

Centrosaurinae

In among the steady stream of Triceratops skulls that John Bell Hatcher was sending east to Yale in 1891 were a pair of ringers two very large skulls that clearly were not the same as the others. The skulls were found less than 2 km apart in southeastern Wyoming. Marsh was on to them right away. By September 1891, he had described them as two species of Torosaurus. The name is an interesting one. It is often construed as the bull lizard El Toro in reference to the very large size of the skulls....

Wherethe Buffalo Roam

Othniel Charles Marsh 1831-1899 was Yale University's great nineteenth-century vertebrate paleontologist Fig. 3.1 . He enjoyed the benefits of a great family fortune, earned by his maternal uncle, George Peabody, a Baltimore textile merchant, who founded the Yale Peabody Museum and endowed a professorship for his nephew. No child prodigy, Marsh did not settle down at Yale to his serious scientific career until 1866, in his thirty-fifth year, although he began publishing five years earlier. He...

Arrhinoceratopsno Nose Horn

Triceratops Skull

Parks 1868-1936 at the University of Toronto already had solid credentials in invertebrate paleontology, when, late in his career, he had the opportunity to study dinosaurs as well. Barnum Brown had already finished his collecting in Alberta. The Sternberg team had broken up, and C. H. Sternberg had returned to the United States. C. M. Sternberg in Ottawa had replaced Lawrence Lambe, who was now dead. Fortu- FIG. 4.12. Arrhinoceratops brachyops skull, Royal Ontario Museum. From Dod-son...

Covering The Body

Tooth Side View With Roots

Skin is the first body system that we notice in a living animal, but it is also the first part of a buried animal to disappear. Even though the skin in a large animal may form a tough shield several centimeters thick in places, it usually rots away eventually after death. For some Ice Age mammals, such as giant ground sloths, wooly mammoths, or bison, skin with its hair is, under special conditions, actually preserved, but these fossils are at most only a few tens of thousands of years old.3...

The Shortfrilled Horned Dinosaurs

Tyrannosaurus Episternum

WHEN horned dinosaur remains began to be discovered in what is now Montana, they were those of the short-frilled types we know today as centrosaurines. This group includes the exotic Styracosaurus, the enigmatic Pachyrhinosaurus, and the recently discovered Einiosaurus that shows an unexpected state of horn development. I confess to a special fondness for centrosaurines. My own work in Alberta and Montana has often involved centrosaurines. In fact, part of my slender claim to paleontological...

Triceratops Prorsus

Triceratops Walters

Note This table is comprehensive and in historical order. Figure 3.8 shows only those species that have been figured. Note This table is comprehensive and in historical order. Figure 3.8 shows only those species that have been figured. in history to strive toward a modern understanding. Hatcher's detailed descriptions of all of the species of Triceratops are extremely valuable and generally far more informative than Marsh's original descriptions. Hatcher's writings form an excellent starting...

Lifestyles Of The Large And Famous

Triceratops Brain

We have surveyed the animals themselves, their distribution, and the diverting history of their discovery. Few amateurs worry at night about whether Stegoceras is a suitable outgroup for the Ceratopsia or whether the lack of parietal fenestrae in Triceratops is a retained basal character or a character reversal. Children and adults alike really want to know what manner of beasts were the horned dinosaurs. We really yearn to know them as once-living, breathing, behaving, socializing, reproducing...