Carnivores

The tools in a predator reptile's kit include an opportunistic instinct, well-developed reflexes, mucous glands in the mouth that lubricate its prey, a potent immune system, and a tongue with olfactory nerve endings. can expand both their mouths and parts of their digestive tracts to swallow their prey whole. Their teeth and fangs are not for chewing but for hunting, poisoning, and retaining their prey. feast on invertebrates and other vertebrates. Crocodile young mainly consume terrestrial and...

Deadly Embrace

Snakes have developed a wide range of techniques to kill their prey. For example, both boas and pythons are powerful constrictors, meaning that they kill by asphyxiating their prey rather than poisoning them with venom. Although boas and pythons belong to the same category of snakes (a category that includes the largest species in the world the famous anaconda and reticulated python of Africa and Asia), their reproductive systems differ from one another. Their large size makes them heavy and...

Komodo Dragon

Komodo dragons have an acute sense of smell that can detect the presence of other animals up to 2 miles (3 km) away. They track their prey using their forked tongues to detect scents from molecules in the air. Jacobson's organ, located inside the mouth, helps the lizard to locate its prey more rapidly and consume less energy while tracking it. his animal is the largest lizard in the world. It is related to monitor lizards and can grow up to 9.8 feet (3 m) long and weigh up to approximately 330...

Geckos

Geckos are a group of small, slender lizard species that live mostly in tropical and subtropical regions and on many islands in the oceans. Some species live in deserts, and many have burrows or make their homes in rock crevices. They are nocturnal and can flee from their predators by voluntarily shedding their tails. Geckos are the only lizards whose males produce sounds to attract females and to defend their territory. These agile climbers can walk on smooth vertical surfaces or even upside...

Enchanted Snakes

Obras, as well as vipers and boas (to a lesser degree), are the object of the fascinating performances of snake charmers. In Asia especially India snake charmers carry out a very dramatic performance that has been repeated since ancient times. Snake charming has since spread all the way to the Mediterranean coast of Africa. The technique of enchanting snakes requires a knowledge of their weaknesses. For example, it is the movement of the flute, not its actual sound, to which they respond....

The Great Predator of the South

He largest carnivorous dinosaur that has ever existed on Earth lived.95'million years ago during the Late Cretaceous Period. Fossjjs of Giganotosaurus carolinii were first fpundiDyRii& en Carplini, a mechanic and amateur paleoivtologist,jn.1993. The name means giant' . southern lizard. Although only 70 percent of its JmmST ' Br skeleton was foutid, it is known that it could reach a Ji length of up to 49 feet (15 m) and that it huntedJ belonged the order Saurischia, the suborder Theropoda,...

Deadly Saliva

The saliva of Komodo dragons is full of bacteria that can quickly kill its prey by causing septicemia. To kill its prey, the Komodo dragon only needs to bite it once. An analysis of its saliva revealed 60 types of bacteria, 54 of which cause infection. These bacteria are known to cause putrefaction of dead animals, including the bacteria Pasteurella multocida one of the deadliest , Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella. When combined, they are a deadly weapon. Following the...

Internal Organs

The anatomy of reptiles enables them to live on land. Thanks to their dry, scaly skin and their excretion of uric acid instead of urea, they minimize water loss. The heart distributes blood in a double circuit. Crocodiles were the first vertebrates to have a four-chambered heart the separation of the ventricles is incomplete in all other reptiles. The lungs, developed beyond those of amphibians, contribute to cardiac efficiency by allowing for greater exchange of gases. Longevity 45 years in...

The Family Tree

Animals The Permian Period

The first reptiles descended from ancestral amphibians. They distinguished themselves from their ancestors through mutations that allowed them to free themselves from their dependence on water for reproduction. Among these adaptations, the amniotic egg stands out, but equally important were the development of sex organs that favored internal copulation, an impermeable skin, and the formation of a low volume of urine that eliminates uric acid instead of urea. These adaptations to its environment...

Alligators and Caimans

In this way, they are very similar to lizards. They are distinguished by their great size and ferocity. Several rows of bony plates that look like spines or teeth run down the length of their back They can stay in the water for long periods of time, and they are able to swallow underwater without drowning. They make their nests in holes on the beach. The Johnston's, or freshwater, crocodile, of tropical northern Australia, can gallop to the water by raising all four feet off the...

Colubrid

Indian Cobra Distribution Worldwide

This type of skull lacks front fangs. Some species are nonvenomous, but others have fangs with a groove for delivering venom. In this type of skull, the fangs are located in front, but they are smaller and have only a groove, rather than a canal, for injecting venom. consists of the two Duvernoy's glands, one on each side of the skull, which produce venom and are connected to the fangs. When biting, muscle contractions exert pressure on the gland and activate the injection mechanism. THE...

Saurischians

Dinosaurs Structure

Bones similar to those of today's reptiles, such as crocodiles and lizards. Many species of saurischian dinosaurs have been found, including Velociraptor and Argentinosaurus. They had long, flexible necks and large claws on the initial digits. Carnivores of the Cretaceous Period. They grew up to 46 feet 14 m long and weighed up to 7.7 tons 7 metric x j 1ej,. teeth Were like knives. In spite of their name, these animals are not ancestors of today's birds. ORNITHISCHIANS Named for the curvature...

Suchomimus

Similar to a crocodile, this dinosaur was a dangerous theropod that lived in northern Africa during the middle of the Cretaceous Period. It could measure up to 42.5 feet 13 m long and 16.5 feet 5 m tall. It had a long snout with almost 100 teeth. giganotosaurs in South America were the largest threats to the peaceful herbivores. New, distinctive species, such as the duck-billed hadrosaurs and the armored Triceratops, also appeared. was a feathered dinosaur that lived in China in the early...

The Jurassic Period

Dryosaurus

During this period, dinosaurs diversified greatly and spread out to occupy land, sea, and air. Along with large herbivores, there were salamanders, lizards, and the Archaeopteryx, the most ancient bird known. The climate of the Jurassic Period was mild, with moisture-laden winds from the ocean. They brought great downpours, enabling forests to cover wide areas of land. The name Jurassic comes from the Jura mountain range in the northern Swiss Alps. This is where the formal mapping of the rocks...

Crocodiles

Are distinguished by their usually large size. From neck to tail, their backs are covered in rows of bony plates, which can give the impression of thorns or teeth. Crocodiles appeared toward the end of the Triassic Period, and they are the closest living relatives to both dinosaurs and birds. Their hearts are divided into four chambers, their brains show a high degree of development, and the musculature of their abdomens is so developed that it resembles the gizzards of birds. The larger...

Reptiles And Dinosaurs

Britannica Illustrated Science Library Encyclop dia Britannica, Inc. Chicago London New Delhi Paris Seoul Sydney Taipei Tokyo Britannica Illustrated Science Library Idea and Concept of This Work Editorial Sol 90 Photo Credits Corbis, ESA, Getty Images, Graphic News, NASA, National Geographic, Science Photo Library Illustrators Guido Arroyo, Pablo Aschei, Gustavo J. Caironi, Hern n Ca ellas, Leonardo C sar, Jos Luis Corsetti, Vanina Far as, Joana Garrido, Celina Hilbert, Isidro L pez, Diego Mart...

Heroes and Villains

Snake Hair God

Since time immemorial, reptiles have been the subjects of myths and legends. They have also earned their own space in religious texts, where they are depicted as gods or lesser beings. They may symbolize the incarnation of evil in some cases or divinity in others. The snake and the crocodile, among others, have taken on lives of their own they play an active role in the stories of many peoples and have been assigned unique, culturally specific meanings. are what Medusa had on her head instead...

Turtles in the Water

Sea turtles have had to adapt parts of their bodies to an aquatic environment. Their front legs propel them through the water, and their hind legs serve as rudders for steering. Their shells are highly streamlined. They can spend up to several hours submerged in the water, since they have a dual respiratory system. They lay eggs but make their nests on solid ground, and they have an interesting system for choosing the spot where their young will be born they return to the same spot where they,...

Egg Eaters

Snake Distended

The egg-eating snake is both harmless and common. Its body is about as thick as an adult's fourth finger. The egg-eating snake eats bird eggs and hen eggs that are larger than its body. Although it might be confused with a true viper because of its size and coloring, it is classified as an oophagous egg-eating snake in the family Dasypeltis. Snakes in this family are distinguished by special vertebrae that help break the shell of an egg as it is swallowed. It selects eggs very carefully, using...

Omnivores

Green Anaconda Cloaca

Turtles may be slow, but many include mollusks, worms, and slow-moving insect larvae among the items on their otherwise vegetarian menu. The loggerhead sea turtle, which measures over 6.5 feet 2 m long, eats sponges, mollusks, crustaceans, fish, and algae. Most reptiles are oviparous. Some species lay large numbers of eggs and then allow them to develop on their own, generally in well-protected nests or hidden under dirt or sand. Marine turtles, especially green turtles, travel to the coast to...

Feared and Worshipped

Coelophysis

This mask is used during popular festivals in Sri Lanka to frighten evil spirits. In Asian cultures, nagas represent sacred serpents. Because of their frightening appearances, snakes, dragons, and crocodiles are found in the legends and myths of peoples throughout the world. In sculptures, paintings, and masks used for various ceremonies, many of these animals are represented as good or bad gods for are associated with magical powers. The snake is usually linked to the primordial waters from...

Freshwater Tiirtles

Internal Respiratory System Turtle

Most turtle species live in freshwater. They are distinguished by their feet, which are partially or totally webbed and are used for swimming, an activity at which they are highly skilled. They can also be identified by their shells, which are flatter than those of land-dwelling turtles. Some freshwater turtles are quite well adapted to living on land. In general, they prefer warm climates with abundant vegetation, so they commonly live near swamps and rivers located in subtropical areas around...

Internal Structure

Their temperature varies according to the environment. They do not generate their own body heat. Snakes are scaly reptiles with long bodies and no legs. Some are poisonous, but others are not. Like all reptiles, they have a spinal column and a skeletal structure composed of a system of vertebrae. The anatomical differences between species reveal information about their habitats and diets climbing snakes are long and thin, burrowing snakes are shorter and thicker, and sea snakes have flat tails...

The Triassic Period

Triassic Period

Pangea was mostly a dry, hot desert with palm trees, ginkgoes, and other gymnosperms. Some small species of horsetail rushes genus Equisetum , ferns, and marine algae also survived there. Toward the end of this period, a new extinction event removed several groups of species while opening up new horizons for those that survived especially the dinosaurs, which spread rapidly. The biological crisis of the late Permian Period was followed by a slow resurgence of life in the Triassic Period. The...

Different Species

Camarasaurus

During the middle of the Jurassic Period, the planet was lush and green. The gradual splitting of Pangea created new ecological environments, which were more humid and more diverse. The increased humidity enabled the growth of large trees and dense vegetation. This flourishing environment powered the continued diversification of different dinosaur species. In contrast, these conditions forced a decline in the majority of synapsids, and the archosaurs the group that includes crocodiles largely...

Viperid

Black Necked Spitting Cobra

Teeth and large, retractable fangs that are thick or hooked. is directly related to each species' diet and in the case of venomous snakes to its system for injecting poison. Most snakes have small skulls with jawbones that can be separated voluntarily by sliding them along a kind of perpendicular rail, which consists of a bone called the quadrate. This greatly increases the size of the snake's mouth. JACOBSON'S ORGAN gives the snake an excellent sense of smell. It consists of two cavities in...

Longlived Giants

Iant tortoises once lived on all the continents except Australia and Antarctica, both before and during the Pleistocene Era. They are now extinct on the continents and are only found on the Aldabra atoll in the Seychelles islands in the Indian Ocean and on the Galapagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador. In the Galapagos there are distinct populations living in different parts of its small area. The Galapagos giant tortoise, Geochelone nigra, is the largest tortoise in the world, weighing up to...

The Age of Reptiles

The first period of the Mesozoic Era gave rise to the Age of Reptiles. On land, the synapsids, which later developed into mammals, began to decline, and the archosaurs, or dominant reptiles, lived in various habitats. The earliest crocodiles began to develop, along with turtles and frogs, among others. The pterosaurs ruled the air and the ichthyosaurs the water. The dinosaurs another order of archosaurs appeared in the Middle Triassic, approximately 250 million years ago. Toward the end of the...