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(Mohr, 1989, see also Krusat, 1989). Hahn and Hahn (1992) consider Porto Pinheiro to be of Berriasian age, an assessment we tentatively follow here.

Mammalian fossils from Porto Pinheiro were recovered through screenwashing (Kühne, 1971) and include more than 800 isolated teeth. Some two-thirds of the specimens are reported to belong to "eupantotherians"; of these, only the so-called "Porto Pinheiro molar" has been described (Krusat, 1969; Kraus, 1979). This enigmatic tooth is peramuran-like in some respects (chapter 10), and Martin (2002) placed it in the species Nanolestes krusati. The triconodontid Priacodon and, possibly, the "symmetrodontan" Tinodon, both of which are known from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the United States, are reported to be present at Porto Pinheiro (Krusat, 1989). Best known from this site are the multi-tuberculates, which include four genera and six species of plagiaulacidans. These are referred to their own family, Pinheirodontidae (see Hahn and Hahn, 1999a), which are also recorded from the Barremian of Spain (Lavocatia) and the Berriasian of Britain (Gerhardodon).

The remaining Early Cretaceous sites on the Iberian Peninsula are in Spain (figure 2.9). The Galve locality, Teruel Province, is in the Camarillas Formation, considered to be a Wealden facies (Canudo and Cuenca-Bescos, 1996).5 Fossils, including mammals, have been collected from a number of sites and stratigraphic levels within the Camarillas Formation (see reviews by Canudo et al., 1996a,b, 1997; Cuenca-Bescos et al., 1996). As for the geologically older site of Guimarota, Portugal, the paly-nomorphs indicated a well-differentiated flora and a fluvial regime; Galve is estimated to be of early Barremian age (Mohr, 1989). Mammalian fossils representing six taxa (Crusafont-Pairo and Adrover, 1966; Henkel and Krebs, 1969; Crusafont and Gibert, 1976; Krebs, 1985, 1993; Hahn and Hahn, 1992)6 were collected through screen-washing. Of these, four represent last occurrences: Paul-choffatiidae (Galveodon) are otherwise known from the Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous (Guimarota, Purbeck) and Pinheirodontidae (Lavocatia), European Dryolestidae (Crusafontia), and Spalacotherium from earlier in the Cre

5 Contributions on the fossil mammals, cited below, give the impression of a single locality at Galve. A chart by Canudo et al. (1996a: figure 3) suggests that the fossils were collected from multiple levels, including at least three horizons in the Camarillas Formation, as well as one near the top of the underlying Castellar Formation.

6 Passing mention should be made of "Pocamus pepelui," described from Galve by Canudo and Cuenca-Besco's (1996) and later shown to be based on the fourth upper premolar of Crusafontia cuencana (see Martin, 1998).

taceous. These taxa may be relictual, their persistence on the Iberian Peninsula reflecting geographic isolation (Krebs, 1985). On the other hand, it should be noted that the remaining mammalian genera known from Galve, Eobaatar and Parendotherium, belong to a family known from both the Wealden and the Early Cretaceous of Asia. Indeed, Eobaatar itself was first described from Hoovor (referred to previously as Khoboor or Khovboor), Mongolia (Kielan-Jaworowska, Dashzeveg, and Trofimov, 1987), indicating that some interchange was possible.

The site of Uña, Cuena Province, Spain, is also in beds sometimes termed "Weald," but here the vertebrate fauna derives from a coal. Palynomorphs and charophytes provide somewhat conflicting age assessments ranging from Hau-terivian to late Barremian. The similarity of the vertebrate assemblage to that of Galve suggests that they are of the same age; that is, early Barremian (Krebs, 1995). The flora is a specialized, coastal swamp assemblage (Mohr, 1989), and the paleoenvironment is interpreted as having been a swampy alluvial plain near the margin of a lake (Krebs, 1995). The fossils, obtained by a combination of screenwashing and quarrying the coal, include several mammal jaws and a number of isolated teeth. Lower vertebrates are considerably more abundant than mammals. Only three mammal species are known from Uña, all of which are also known from Galve. Significantly, a well-preserved dentary of the dry-olestid Crusafontia was recovered from Uña.

Pié Pajarón is near Uña and is probably also of Bar-remian age. Two isolated anterior upper premolars have been described as ?Eobaatar pajaronensis. Referral to the genus is tentative but noteworthy, if confirmed: as just noted, Eobaatar is also known from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia as well as Western Europe.

The site of Vallipón, Teruel Province, lies in the Artoles Formation, in part of the section interpreted to represent a beach facies, transitional between continental and marine depositional settings (Canudo et al., 1996b; Cuenca-Bescós and Canudo, 1999). The fauna, of late Barremian age, includes abundant chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, archosaurs, lepidosaurs, and several mammals. Of these, the only one identified to genus level is Gobiconodon, known by an upper molar said to represent a new species (Cuenca-Bescós and Canudo, 1999). As noted elsewhere, Gobiconodon was evidently widespread, both geographically and temporally, and has been reported from beds spanning much of the Early Cretaceous, including units in North America, Europe, and Asia.

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