Fishes

A new Peipiaosteus from Fengning of Hebei, China. Vert brala PalAsialica, 21(4) 34 I 346. (In Chinese, with English abstract) Chang, M.-m., Chou, C.-c., 1977. On late Mesozoic fossil fishes from Zhejiang Province, China. Memoirs of Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Paleoanthropology, Academia S nica, 12 59- (In Chinese, with English abstract) Cockered, T. D. A., 1925. The affinities of fish Lycoptera muldendorffi. Bulletin of tlx American Museum of Natural History,...

Meizhen Cao Ycinxia

Ostracods are tiny crustaceans of the phyium Arthropoda. They are important microfossils and useful in geological prospecting. The most conspicuous feature of these animals is the bearing of a bivalved carapace in which the soft body is enclosed (Fig. 46). The two valves are not symmetrical, and are constituted by calcareous layer and chitinous coating. The left valve is normally somewhat larger and overlapping the right one. The exterior surface of valves may be ornamented or smooth. The...

Info

Except for one taxon, Chunerpeton, which is referred to the Cryptobranchidae. Laccotriton subsolanus (Fig. 109) is the first Mesozoic salamander reported from China. It is a small-sized metamorphosed salamander, represented by a large number of articulated skeletons from a small quarry in Fengshan Basin of northern Hebei Province. Laccotriton subsolanus is characterized by having 16 presacrals and unicapitate ribs with a broadened base (most living salamanders have bicapitate ribs, except for...

Gastropods

The Gastropods of the Purbcck Beds. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 97 79 128. Huckriede, R., 1967. Molluskcnfauncn mit limnischen und brackischen Elementen aus Jura, Serpulit und Weal den NW-Deutschlands und ihre palaogeographische Bedeutung. Beihefte zum Geologischen Jahrbrich, 67 1 266. (In German) Sharabati, D. P., 1981. Saudi Arabian Seashells. Netherland Royal Smeets Offset. Yu, W., Wang, H.-j,, Li, Z.-s., 1963. Gastropod Fossils from CJhina....

Shrimps

Albrechr, H., 1983- Die Protastacidae n. fam., fossile Vorfahren der Flusskrebse Neues Jahrbuch f r Geologie und Pal ontologie, Monatshefte, H 1 5 15. (In German, with English abstract) Gordon, I., 1957. On Spelaeogriphns, a new cavcrnicolous crustacean from South Africa. Bulletin of British Museum of Natural History (Zoology), 5 31 47. Hobbs Jr., H. H 1974. Synopsis of the families and genera of the crayfishes (Crustacea Decapoda). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 164 1 32. Hobbs Jr., H....

Uaoning Photo Dajian Li CASFormation in Linyuan Liaoning Photo Dongxing Deng NIGP

MB 68 A nearly complete individual (venrral view, 16 mm long) of Liaoningogriphus quadriportitus from Sihetun locality (lower part of Yixian Formation) in Beipiao, Liaoning, showing thorax, abdomen and tail. (Photo Hai-chun Zhang N1GP) deposits of Las Hoyas, Spain are under description. A new spelaeogriphacean, Liaoningogriphus quadripartitus, was recently described by Shen, Taylor anil Schram (Figs. 6H 70) from the Yixian Formation in Sihetun, Jianshangou, and Huangbanjigou areas of Beipiao...

Contributors

Lu, Hui-nan Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences No. 39, East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China Pan, Hua-zhang Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences No. 39, East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China Shen, Yan-bin Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences No. 39, East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China Wang, Qi-fei Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of...

Birds

Hou, L.-h , Chen, P.-j., 1999- Uaoxiornis delicatus gen. et sp. nov., the smallest Mesozoic bird. Chinese Science Bulletin (English edition), 44(9) 834 838. Hou, L.-h., Martin, L. D Zhou, Z.-h., Feduccia, A., t996. Early adaptation of birds evidence from fossils from Northeastern China. Science, 27 1164 1167. Hou, L.-h., Martin, L. D., Zhou, Z.-h., Fcduccia, A., 1999. Archaeopteryx to opposite birds missing link from the Mesozoic of China. Verttbrata PalAsiatica, 37(2) 88-95. Hou, L.-h.,...

Is

Bivalvia are a class of bivalved moilusks, also known as Pelecypoda and Lameliibranchiata in the literature. The bivalves are aquaric animals with a shell consisting of two matching lateral valves united by a dorsal horny ligament. The valves can be drawn together by a pair of adductor muscles reduced to one in some against the opening counter-force of the ligament. Today the bivalves are among the most common benthic invertebrates, especially on marine shelves, although there are many species...

Jiangyong Zhang Fan

Fishes are che most abundant fossils in the Jehol Biota. They are counted tens of thousands. The scientific study on fossil fishes of Jehol Biota in western Liaoning started in the second half of the 19th century when II. E, Sau vage, a French anatomist, named the specimens from northern China as a new species. Prolebias davidi, of Cyprinodontidae. Nearly hall a century later, Amadeus W. Grabau, an American paleontologist, described Lycoptcra johtdensis ami L.jahoknsis var. minor in his book...

Yuanqing Wang Yaoming Hit Chucmkui Li

Liaotherium

Mammalia is biologically the most differentiated group of vertebrates, consisting of all the living mammals, their common ancestor, and their extinct allies. Mammals have predominated the modern terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Cenozoic lira since some 65 million years Myr ago, which is thus often referred to as the Age of Mammals. However, the first two-thirds of mammalian history occurred in the preceding Mesozoic Era that extended from roughly 250 to about 65 Myr before present. After...

Therizinosaurus

Protopteryx

1163 The phylogenetic positions of the Jehol non-avian theropods in red among the related groups. 1164 Skull of the holotype of Psittacosaurui meileyingensis estimated body length I 2 m from Meileyingzi locality Jiufotang Formation , Chaoyang. Liaoning. Psittacosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaur living in the Farly Cretaceous of Asia and a distant relative of Triceratops. 1165 Complete skull of a juvenile Uaoceratops yanzigouensis total body length less than Im . a small primitive...

Jim

129 Holotype of J eholacerta furmosa, a Jehol lizard with well-preserved skin impressions, from a locality Yixian Formation in Pingquan, Hebei. Courtesy Shu-anji PKU n 128 Holotype of Dalinghosaurus longidigitus, a long-tailed lizard, from Sihetim locality lower part of Yixian Formation in Beipiao. Liaoning. Courtesy Shu-anji PKU The Squamata lizards and snakes is the most successful group of modern reptiles. Squamates usually are slender animals with scuteila covering their bodies. This group...

Pelobates Skeleton

Amphibians double life in Greek are a class of primitive tetrapods vertebrates with four limbs that spend at least part of their lives in water and part on land, although some are entirely aquatic or terrestrial. Amphibians provide a biological link between fishes and the true land-living vertebrates, as they are the first group of tetrapods that invaded the land some 370 million years ago. Living amphibians are classified in the Subclass Lissamphibia with their closely related ancestors in...

Huazhcmg Pan Xianggen

Gastropods snails and slugs are the most abundant, most diverse, and perhaps the best known of extant mollusks. They have approximately 37,500 living species, and represent some 80 percent of the living mollusks, only less than insects in number among all invertebrates. More than half of these snails and slugs are marine animals, and they are the only molluscan class to have spread both into freshwater and on land. Gastropods include three subclasses Prosobranchia, Opisthobranchia, and...

Aninialia

Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda Subclass Prosobranchia Pseudarinia yushugouensis Zhu, 1976 Family Valvatidae M ller. 1774 Amplovalvaia sp Family Hydrobidae Fischer, 1885 Reesidella sp. Family Micromelaniidae Brusina, 1874 Probaicalia gerassimovi Reis, 1910 Probaicalia vilimensis Martinson, 1949 Subclass Pulmonata Prychostylusphilipp Dunker. 1846 Ptychostylus harpaeformis Kochet Dunker, 1837 Zaptychius sp. Family Lymnueidae Broderip, 1839 Galba sphaira Pan. 1983 Family Planorbidae Geffroy, 1767...

Haichim Zhang

Florinemestrius Pulcherrimus

Hexagenitidae of the order Ephemeroptera, is very important in the correlaci n of non-marine strata in East Asia, its nymphs, with abundant individuals, lived in the warm, shallow and stagnant waters near the shore, crawling on the bottom or swimming in the waters and preying on other aquatic insects. The adults lived on land and were short-lived and poor fliers. This mayfly is distinguished from other components of Hexageniddae by its large size, and is a cecal branch in the evolution of this...

Shunqing

Bennettites

Land plants constitute an important component of the Jehol Biota. They are recorded mainly from the Yixian Formation of West Liaoning, and represent almost all major groups of land plants known from the Mesozoic Era including free-sporing plants Bryophyta, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida, Filicopsida and seed plants Ginkgoales, Czekanowskiales, Coniferales, Bennettitales, Gnetales and Angiospermae . This presentation is based mainly on the study of plant fossils from the Jianshangou Bed of the lower...

Qifei Wang Huinan Lu Jinglin Yang

Charophyte Fossils

The charophytes or stoneworts , a kind of'algae, grow in fresh or brackish waters including streams, ponds, lakes, lagoons, fjords and have a wide geographical distribution on all continents except Antarctica. Most of them live in the waters that are clear, transparent and rich in calcium, mostly with pH ranging from 7.0 to 8.0, e.g., alkaline, high-calcium lakes. Charophytes are present in running water only where movement is slight. They grow submerged in the water from shorewards to a depth...

Else Marie Friis

Archaefructus Sinensis

Angiosperms flowering plants are ecologically dominant in most terrestrial vegetation today, accounting for the bulk of the primary productivity on land. They constitute the most species-rich group of land plants that ever existed, with an overwhelming morphological diversity of flowers and growth forms ranging from the tiniest duckweed to the tallest trees. They also occur in most ecosystems on land from deserts to coastal swamps and even have representatives living in the oceans. Despite...

Yanbin Shen

Flusskrebs Spermatophoren

at 61 Recent crayfish I'rocanibarus clarkii. Dorsal view of a male Left . Ventral view of a male, showing the tubular form of pleopods 1 and 2 Middle , ventral view of female, showing the annulus ventralis and pleopods 1 5 Righfi. Photo Shi-wei Zhao NIGP The highly sporadic fossil record of freshwater shrimps is improved by the discovery of abundant specimens ol astacids and spelaeogriphids from thcjchol Group. The former are a large well-known crayfish Decapoda, Astacidea and the tatter a new...

Xitaizi locality lower part of Yixian Formation in Ningcheng Chifeng Inner Mongolia

The most notable among these localities are Sihetun, Jianshangou, Zhangjiagou, Huangbanjigou, Hengdaozi, Libalanggou, Heitizigou, etc. Fossil-bearing beds comparable to the Jianshangou Bed are also found in other basins of western Liaoning, northern Hebei and southeastern Inner Mongolia, including Shangyuan Bed in Beipiao, and Zhuanchengzi Beds in Yixian County. The Jianshangou Bed represents 2 3 sedimentary cycles of coastal lake, shallow lake, semi-deep lake to deep lake. The sediments...

Jim Liu Xiao Iin Wang

The Choristodera is a ciade of distinctive but poorly known aquatic reptiles. For more than one century, knowledge of this group was limited to two highly specialized genera Champsosaurta and Simoedasanrus from North America and Europe. Over the last two decades, additional nine genera have been referred to the Choristodera. Thus, we now have a better understanding of these animals. They had a temporal range spanning at least 190 million years from the Lace Triassic to the late Oligocene and a...