Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Introduction 1

1. Fossils: A Time Capsule 7

2. The Cretaceous: A Time of Change 17

3. Herbivory 37

4. Dinosaurs Competing with Insects 50

5. Did Dinosaurs or Insects "Invent" Flowering Plants? 55

6. Pollination 57

7. Blights and Diseases of Cretaceous Plants 63

8. The Cretaceous: Age of Chimeras and Other Oddities 72

9. Sanitary Engineers of the Cretaceous 79

10. The Case for Entomophagy among Dinosaurs 91

11. Gorging on Dinosaurs 102

12. Biting Midges 110

13. Sand Flies 116

14. Mosquitoes 122

15. Blackflies 127

16. Horseflies and Deerflies 131

17. Fleas and Lice 135

18. Ticks and Mites 141

19. Parasitic Worms 147

20. The Discovery of Cretaceous Diseases 157

21. Diseases and the Evolution of Pathogens 171

22. Insects: The Ultimate Survivors 185

23. Extinctions and the K/T Boundary 192

Appendix A: Cretaceous Hexapoda 203

Appendix B: Key Factors Contributing to the

Survival of Terrestrial Animals 219

Appendix C: Problems with Evaluating the Fossil

Record and Extinctions 221

References 225

Index 253

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