Topic questions

1. Define: phylogeny, morphology, homologous, analogous, a tree of life, hierarchy, characters, diagnostic, cladogram, node, derived, advanced, monophyletic groups, primitive, ancestral, parsimony, test, falsify, science.

2. Why is it that the direct ancestor of any organism isn't easy to identify?

3. If you have several possible cladograms, how do you determine which is the preferred one?

4. Construct a cladogram of something that particularly interests you (examples: guitars, music, sports, shoes, etc.). Be sure to show the diagnostic characters in their correct hierarchical locations.

5. If you don't know the ancestor, how can you hope to understand how something evolved?

6. On p. 41 we said that we could "map" the course of evolution with a cladogram. How do cladograms allow us to do this?

7. Construct a scientific hypothesis.

8. Construct a non scientific hypothesis.

9. How is a cladogram a "hypothesis of relationship?" 10. Contrast a "tree of life" with a cladogram.

Ceratopsian Cladogram

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