How to read evolution in the cladogram

We identified monophyletic groups using derived characters, and that the hierarchies of characters designate hierarchies of groups. So, looking at Figure 3.9, the distribution of shared, derived characters suggests that humans and gorillas are more closely related to each other than either is to a bear. It also suggests that all three are more closely related to each other than they are to something that does not possess the derived character of bearing fur or hair.

And how does that apply to evolution? The evolution of the derived character of fur is associated with the evolution of the group Mammalia. As we currently understand their

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    How to read cladogram?
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