Early Triassic Ma

Figure 2.5. The positions of the present-day continents during the Early Triassic (237 Ma). Earth was dominated by the unified landmass Pangaea.
Figure 2.6. The positions of the continents during the Late Jurassic (152 Ma) Pangaea has begun its dismemberment while the southern continent of Gondwana remains together.

became the Atlantic Ocean, remained a dominant geographical feature, as Europe continued to separate from North America.

In Gondwana, a stable continental marriage dating back to the Early Paleozoic Era finally underwent rifting involving two of its largest constituents - Africa and South America - as well as two smaller constituents, India and Madagascar. While India and Madagascar were in the first bloom of unconfinement, Australia and Antarctica remained together (a union that would not end until about 50 Ma), and a land connection remained, as it almost does today, between South America and Antarctica.

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