Birds are dinosaurs. We don't mean that they are related to dinosaurs - although, if they are dinosaurs, they must be related them. We don't mean that they come from dinosaurs -although they obviously evolved from something that was itself a dinosaur. We mean that birds are dinosaurs, a statement that, as this chapter unfolds, will be no more radical than saying that humans are mammals.
So how do we figure out who birds are related to? The same way that we explored in Chapter 3: using diagnostic characters. Here we choose those features that might be easily observed in a fossil.
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