Unlock Your Hip Flexors
Cladogram of Eurypoda, emphasizing the monophyly of Anky-losauria. Derived characters include at 1, closure of antorbital and upper temporal fenestrae, ossification and fusion of keeled plate onto side of lower jaw, fusion of first tail vertebrae to sacral vertebrae and ilium, rotation of ilium to form flaring blades, closure of hip joint, development of dorsal shield of symmetrically placed bony plates and spines.
Reflecting the importance of heavy armoring to ankylosaurs, it is not surprising that the accoutrements of armor and or its support comprise the majority of derived features uniting the clade Ankylosauria. These animals all share, among other features, closure of the antorbital and upper temporal openings, ossification and fusion of a keeled plate onto the side of the lower jaw, fusion of some of the first couple of tail vertebrae to the sacral vertebrae and ilium, rotation of the ilium to form flaring blades, closure of the hip joint, and of course the development of a dorsal shield of symmetrically placed bony plates (both large and small) and spines. Figure 7.8. Cladogram of'higher'Thyreophora, emphasizing the monophyly of Ankylosauria. Derived characters include at I closure of antorbital and upper temporal openings, ossification and fusion of keeled plate onto side of lower jaw, fusion of first tail vertebrae to sacral vertebrae and ilium, rotation of ilium to form flaring...
Tectonostratigraphic Sequences Of The Newark Basin And Their Depositional Environments And Paleontology
Temporal ranges of footprint ichnogenera and key osteological taxa binned into 1 my intervals showing the change in maximum theropod dinosaur footprint length (line drawn through maximum) and percent of the assemblages that consist of dinosaur tracks (with linear regression line). Short, horizontal lines adjacent to stratigraphic sections show the position of assemblages and the attached vertical lines indicate the uncertainty in stratigraphic position. Ichnotaxa are 1, Rhynchosauroides hyperbates 2, new dinosaurian genus 1 3, Atreipus 4, Chirotherium lulli 5, Procolophonichnium 6, Gwyneddichnium 7, Apatopus 8, Brachychirotheriumparvum 9, new taxon B 10, Rhynchosauroides spp. 11, Ameghinichnus 12, Grallator 13, Anchisauripus 14, Batrachopus deweyii 15, Batrachopus gracilis 16, Eubrontes giganteus 17, Anomoepus scambus 18, Otozoum moodii. Stratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic columns and correlations modified from (Olsen, 1997) (from Olsen et al., 2002b).
Members of the pachycephalosaur clade share a host of derived features, most of them cranial. Most important are the thickened skull roof (either table-like or domed), modified cheek region that shrouds the jaw joint, extensive ossification of the orbit (including additional bony elements fused to its upper margin), shortening of the floor of the braincase, expansion of the back of the skull, abundant and strongly developed ornamentation of the external surfaces of the skull, special ridge-and-groove articulations between articular processes on the back and tail vertebrae, elongate sacral ribs, a basket-work of ossified tendons that cover the end of the tail, and reduction of the pubic bone to where it does not contribute to the formation of the hip joint. Within Pachycephalosauria, there are a few poorly known taxa at the base of the clade (Figure 8.12). Although it lacks skull material and has been referred to numerous other ornithischian groups, Stenopelix, from the Early...
Suggest some kind of size sorting in molting. P. gracilis is practically indistinguishable from P. paradoxissimus, except for the number of segments in adult individuals, twenty in the Bohemian (see plate 1), twenty-one in the Swedish Paradoxides. Specimens in (a) and (b) whitened with magnesium oxide. (RLS coll., donated by Dr. Petr Storch of the Geological Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague.) A well-preserved, diminutive example of Paradoxides gracilis (Boeck)(x4.5). M. Cambrian, Jinetz, Bohemia. (RLS coll. courtesy of MCZ, now at FMNH.) Specimen whitened with magnesium oxide.
The ball-joint for quick adjustments of footfall, to evolve the fast cursorial locomotion of horses and camels, not to mention the acrobatics of dik-diks and mountain goats. 102 Bipedal dinosaurs, however, did not possess a ball-and-socket hip structure. In dinosaurs, the femoral head was cylindrical and fit hinge-like into a deep hip socket that constrained leg motion to a narrow parasagittal plane of travel. According to Nicholas Hotton, such an inflexible hip configuration would have made it impossible for dinosaurs to make lateral adjustments of footfalls Without comparable flexibility of the hip articulation, dinosaurs could not have attained comparable cursoriality. Small dinosaurs may have been disproportionately more agile than large ones, if instability of the hip imposed less rigid constraints on animals of lighter weight, but the structure of the dinosaur hip joint would have precluded the speed and flexibility of mammals 103 (Emphasis added.) Dinosaur limb architecture is...
The powerful muscles needed to swing the legs forward and backward are attached to the modified pelvic, or hip, girdle, the various bones of which have become elongated. The ilium projects far forward from the hip joint, and is strongly attached to the backbone by between 11 and 23 vertebrae (compared with only 2 or 3 in most reptiles). The pubis and ischium both project backward from the hip joint.
Ceratopsian discoveries continued to be made throughout the rest of the 1990s and into the new millennium in both Asia and North America. In Mongolia, Udanoceratops (from Udan Sair) was the product of on-going field research conducted by Kurzanov, and Graciliceratops gracilis - slender) represents a renaming of material from the Gobi Desert by P. C. Sereno in 2000 that was originally thought to belong to Microceratops. On the other hand, Archaeoceratops ( ancient ceratops ) and Chaoyangsaurus (named for the founder of vertebrate paleontology in China, C.-C. Young) are newly discovered Chinese forms, the former named by Z. Dong and Y. Azuma in 1997 and the latter by X. Zhao, Z. Cheng, and X. Xu in 1999 both have proved pivotal in our understanding of ceratopsian relationships.
There is yet another of our Gobi discoveries that bears on the origins and early evolution of birds. This is Mononykus, the new animal first discovered by the Soviet-Mongolian expeditions, then by Malcolm at Tu-grugeen, and subsequently by other members of our team from Ukhaa Tolgod and various localities. As I noted, Mononykus appears to be a bird. It was, nonetheless, a very odd bird. Although it has no wings, it has several features that suggest a closer relationship with modern birds than the famous primitive bird Archaeopteryx. In addition to the enlarged sternum, these features include an antitrochanter (a small knob on the pelvis at the hip joint), a continuous crest on the femur for attachment of the limb muscles, and a greatly shortened fibula, the more delicate of the lower hind limb bones. True, our Mononykus fossils do not show evidence of feathers, but it is only by some miracle of preservation that the fine Jurassic limestone entombing Archaeopteryx preserves impressions...
If the hind legs were not attached to the wings they need not have stuck out sideways. Padian thinks they were held like bird legs and that pterosaurs ran bipedally like birds (figure 8.2c). It ought to be possible to tell how the legs were held, from the structure of the hip joint, but this is difficult because most of the fossils have the pelvis crushed. The best fossils seem to show that the legs stuck out sideways, much as in lizards (figure 3.5a). This does not necessarily mean that pterosaurs crawled on all fours some lizards get up on their hind legs to run.
For the description of trilobite morphology and nomenclature we shall refer to the reconstruction of a trilobite in figure 2, representing the dorsal view of the carapace of Paradoxides gracilis (Boeck), a beautiful trilobite from the Middle Cambrian of Bohemia. Shown in plate 1 is the photograph of the original specimen, on which the reconstruction has been based. We recognize immediately the bilateral symmetry of the trilobite body, a characteristic that is shared with a large majority of animal groups, collectively described as Bilateria. Here the strongly convex axis takes the name of axial lobe and the two adjacent regions are called pleural lobes. The pleural lobes are separated from the axial lobe by two axialfurrows. It is from this longitudinal trilobation (separation into three lobes) that the name Trilobita originated and not from the longitudinal subdivision of the body into the three regions of the cephalon, the thorax, and the pygidium, as is often erroneously supposed....
Developmental stages (late meraspid degrees) in the Middle Cambrian trilobite Paradoxides gracilis (Boeck), M. Cambrian, from Jince (Jinetz), Bohemia. The specimen in (a) (x8.6) exhibits much elongated genal spines as well as pleural spines of the second thoracic segment. The latter character is common to meraspid stages of other paradoxidids (see plate 92) and is reminiscent of the long pleural spines associated with the third segment macropleurae observed
Description of trilobite terminology, (a) Dorsal view of the complete exoskeleton. (b) Ventral view of cephalon. The trilobite represented is Paradoxides gracilis ( B o e c k ). Dorsal view of a complete specimen of Paradoxides gracilis (Boeck), a Middle Cambrian trilobite from the Jince Formation of Jince (Jinetz), Bohemia. The reconstruction in figure 2 schematizes the characters visible in this adult individual. Distortion due to tectonic shear is often present in the trilobites from this locality. In this photograph, the shear has been partially corrected by tilting the object relative to the camera viewing direction. Specimen whitened with magnesium oxide, (xl.3, RLS coll.).
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