About the time the mammoths were freezing in the northlands, other vertebrates crawled into caves in southern desert regions and died. In this aseptic environment they became mummified. Bones and tissues of these desiccated denizens of the desert are preserved, although often they fall apart at the slightest touch. Even skin and hair retain their original color. Such fossils are the only accurate evidence available to the scientist trying to restore a bag of bones and give it the proper clothing.

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