Contents

I Treasures in the Dust 1

II The Nature of Fossils 12

The Earliest Paleontologists 12 How Fossils Are Formed 14 Miscellaneous Fossil Forms 32

III The Naming of Fossils 39

Classifying Plants and Animals 39

IV Where Fossils Occur 45

Sedimentary Rocks 46

V Time Before Time 69 Relative Time 71 Absolute Time 74

VI Where to Look for Fossils 79 Limestone Quarries 79 Shale Quarries 83

Coal Mines 86 Pits 89

Washing Plants 90 Waste Piles 91 Gravel Pits 94 Metal Mines 97 Road Cuts 99 Railroad Cuts 103 Natural Exposures 104 Other Areas 112

VII Practical Field Tripping 116

Preliminary Preparations 116 Safety Precautions in the Field 119 The Etiquette of Collecting 124

VIII Maps and How to Use Them 133 Road Maps 133 Topographic Maps 134 Geologic Maps 139

IX Preparing and Cleaning Fossils 142 Field Work 143 Cleaning at Home 148

X Special Techniques 179 Thin Sections 179 Plastic Embedment 188 Casting Fossils 192 X-Ray Examination 197 Fluorescence 199

XI Cataloging and Displaying Fossils 201 Labeling 201 Cataloging 202 Displaying 204 Photographing Fossils 209 Trading and Swapping 215

XII Microfossils 217 Conodonts 218 Ostracods 220

Foraminifera 220 Radiolarians 222 Diatoms 222 Other Microfossils 224

Collecting and Preparing Microfossils 224

XIII Fossils and their Families 231 Plants 233 Animals 246

APPENDIX 287

State Maps Showing Fossil Areas 288 Public Sources of Further Information by State 321 Dealers in Fossils 323 Recommended Books 324

INDEX 333

0 0

Post a comment