Figure 8.1 I. Cladogram of Cerapoda, emphasizing the monophyly of Pachycephalosauria. Derived characters include: at I thickened skull roof, frontal excluded from orbital margin, tubercles on posterolateral margin of squamosal, thin, plate-like basal tubera, double ridge-and-groove articulations on dorsal vertebrae, elongate sacral ribs, caudal basket of fusiform ossified tendons, ilium with sigmoidal border; medial process on ilium, pubis nearly excluded from acetabulum, tubercles on squamosal, broad expansion of squamosal onto occiput, free ventral margin of the quadratojugal eliminated by contact between jugal and quadrate.

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