Contents

Preface to the second edition xiii

PARTI Setting the stage I

Chapter I Introduction 3

Fossils 5

Taphonomy 6

Collection 13

Prospecting 13

Collecting 15

Back at the ranch 17

Important readings 19

Chapter 2 Back to the past: the Mesozoic Era 21

When did the dinosaurs live and how do we know? 22

Chronostratigraphy 22

Age of rocks 23

Lithostratigraphy 25

Biostratigraphy 27

Eras and Periods and Epochs, Oh My! 28

Growth of a prehistoric timescale 30

Where were the continents during the time of the dinosaurs? 30

What were climates like during the time of the dinosaurs? 35

Potential effects of plate motions on climate 35

Climates through the Mesozoic 36

Box 2.1 Stable isotopes, ancient temperatures, and dead oceans 38

Important readings 41

Appendix: Chemistry quick'n dirty 43

Chapter 3 Discovering order in the natural world 45

Hierarchy 45

Characters 46

Cladograms 48

A monkey's uncle 51

Evolution 51

Chopping down the "tree of life" 54

Using cladograms to reconstruct phylogeny 56

Box 3.1 Wristwatches: when is a watch a watch? 57

Parsimony 58

Science and testing hypotheses 61

Important readings 62

Chapter 4 Interrelationships of vertebrates 63

In the beginning 63

Jumping to chordates 64

Box 4.1 Body plans 65

Vertebrata 67

Gnathostomata 67

Box 4.2 Biological classification: what's in a name? 68

Tetrapoda 69

The tetrapod skeleton made easy 70

Box 4.3 Fish and chips 71

Amniota 77

Synapsida 78

Reptilia 79

Anapsida 79

Diapsida 80

Archosauromorpha 80

Dinosaurs 82

Box 4.4 Stance: it's both who you are and what you do 83

Important readings 85

Chapter 5 The origin of the Dinosauria 87

History of the Dinosauria 87

Dinosaurs divided 88

Dinosaurs united 90

Dinosaurian monophyly 91

Origins 92

The rise of dinosaurs: superiority or luck? 94

Important readings 98

PART II Ornithischia:armored, horned, and duck-billed dinosaurs 101

Important readings 106

Chapter 6 Stegosauria: hot plates 107

Stegosaur lives and lifestyles I 10

Stance and gait I 10

Dealing with mealing I I I

Brains I 14

Box 6.1 The poetry of dinosaurs I 16

Social lives of the enigmatic I 17

Plates and spines 118

The evolution of Stegosauria 121

Stegosaurs meet history: a short account of their discovery 123

Box 6.2 Nineteenth century dinosaur wars: boxer versus puncher 126

Important readings 130

Chapter 7 Ankylosauria: mass and gas 132

Ankylosaur lives and lifestyles 134

Going their way 134

Food and mouths to feed 135

Defensive moves 137

The evolution of Ankylosauria 139

Ankylosaurs meet history: a short account of their discovery 142 Box 7.1 Indiana Jones and the Central Asiatic Expeditions of the American Museum of Natural History 144

Important readings 146

Chapter 8 Pachycephalosauria: ramrods of the Cretaceous 147

Pachycephalosaur lives and lifestyles 148

Feeding 150

Thoughts of a pachycephalosaur 151

Social behavior 151

Sexual selection 156

The evolution of Pachycephalosauria 157

Pachycephalosaurs meet history: a short account of their discovery 160

Important readings 163

Chapter 9 Ceratopsia: horns and all the frills 164

Ceratopsian lives and lifestyles 167

Feeding 167

Locomotion 169

Horns, frills, and ceratopsian behavior 170

The evolution of Ceratopsia 177

Ceratopsidae 180

Ceratopsians meet history: a short account of their discovery 181

Important readings 184

Chapter 10 Ornithopoda: the tuskers, antelopes, and "mighty ducks" of the Mesozoic 186

Ornithopod lives and lifestyles 189

Going their way 189

Box 10.1 Hypotheses that didn't go the distance 191

Feeding and food 192

Social behavior 197

The evolution of Ornithopoda 205

Heterodontosauridae 206

Euornithopoda 206

Iguanodontia 208

Hadrosauridae 209

Ornithopods meet history: a short account of their discovery 21 I

Important readings 218

PART III Saurischia:predators and giants 221

Important readings 226

Chapter 11 Sauropodomorpha:the big, the bizarre, and the majestic 229

Lifestyles of the huge and ancient 232

Box I I. I Tendaguru! 233

Feeding 240

Locomotion 243

Social behavior 244

Sauropodomorph growth and development 245

The evolution of Sauropodomorpha 248

Prosauropoda 249

Sauropoda 250

Diplodocoidea 252

Box I 1.2 The decapitation of'Brontosaurus" 253

Macronaria 255

Titanosauria 256

Sauropodomorphs meet history: a short account of their discovery 257

Important readings 264

Chapter 12 Theropoda I: Nature red in tooth and claw 265

Theropod lives and lifestyles 270

Going their ways 270

Theropods as living organisms 270

Weaponry 271

Jaws and teeth 273

Box 12.1 Triceratops as spoils... or spoiled Triceratops? 276

Senses 278

Prey 279

Social behavior - sex and the Rex 282

The evolution ofTheropoda 284

Ceratosauria 286

Tetanurae 286

Coelurosauria 288

Eumaniraptora 289

Theropods meet history: a short account of their discovery 290

Important readings 298

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