Paleozoic Period

Paleozoic era, 32, 106-7 Paluxy River trackway, 162, 163 Pangaea, 107-9 parental care, 165-73, 197 by birds, 164, 166,169-71 by crocodiles, 169, 171 bytheropods, 164, 165, 169 parsimony, principle of (Occam's razor), 58-59,69 Patagonia, 17-18,23-25, 27-34,28,

aboriginal inhabitants of, 27-28, 30

climate of, 29,44 Darwin at, 29-30 dinosaurs discovered in, 30-34,

36,75-78 Ice Age mammals of, 29-30 origin of name, 27-28

provinces of, 29

puestos of, 43-45,46,47,94, 119, 121, 186 size of, 28-29 unexplored regions of, 36 Patagosaurus, 77 Peabody Museum, 55 Pehuajo, Argentina, 41 pencil-like teeth, 73,75,78,90, 92,

93,94, 199 photographers, professional, 153-56 Piatnitzkysaurus, 11 Pisanosaurus, 60,63 plants, 53, 107,117, 120, 128 flowering, 109 in rock layers, 201 Plateosaurus, 11-13 plate tectonics, 121 Plaza Huincul, Argentina, 38, 54,

55, 109-10, 142-43, 144, 150 poachers, 194,202-3 Poland, 17

polarizing microscopes, 81, 82 polymerase chain reaction (PCR),

130 Portugal, 89

potassium, half-life of, 110-12 Precambrian era, 32, 106 precociality, 166, 173 Primaleon, 21 primates, 60,70 prismatic eggs, dinosauroid, 82,

83-85, 86 prosauropods, 77,79 protective plaster jackets, 38,46,

52-53, 144, 145, 147, 149, 191 Protoceratops, 47,65, 156, 165 Psittacosaurus, 65 pterodactyls, 109 pubic boot, 186 pubic bone, 63, 69,70 Puerto San Julian, Argentina, 29-30 Pyrenees Mountains, site in, 158-59, 161

Quesitosaurus, 94

radiometric dating, 110-12, 111,

114,119, 154,201 Rebachisaurus, 78 Reig, Osvaldo, 33, 34 reptiles, 57, 59-60,64,107 ancient flying, 109 modern armored, 99 skin of, 97

soft-shelled eggs of, 79 Rio Colorado, 29 Rio Colorado Formation, 31, 193 Rio Negro province, 29, 34, 77 rock layers, 29-30, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 42,44-45,46-47,51-54,75, 105-15,117-23,137-42 ages of, 24,35,49, 52,53,67,

106, 110, 115, 121, 157, 201 ancient vs. younger, 45 Aucasaurus garridoi and, 179-80, 182

bone beds in, 64, 161, 166 egg-bearing, 49, 52, 137, 138-39, 141,142,143-44,145-47, 149,151-55,156-57,166-73, 184-85, 186, 188,190-91, 193 egg-bearing, number of, 143-44, 156-57

measurement of, 49, 137, 138, 139, 143

mudstone, 4 6,47,49,51,52,53, 105, 114, 115,119, 121-23, 137, 138, 139, 142, 143, 145-46, 153, 154, 156, 179-80,182,184-85 number of, 151 paleomagnetic analysis of, 17, 38,112-15,113, 137-38, 139, 143,145,154 plants in, 201 pollen in, 53, 115,201 radiometric dating of, 110-12, 111, 114, 119, 154,201

rock layers (cont.)

137-38,139,143,145 sampling method for, 114 sandstone, 4 7,49,105,114, 115,

119, 121,122,137,143,156 sequences of, 49, 51, 110,118, 119, 120,149,151-53,154 slickensides in, 145-46,184-85 stratigraphic correlation of, 191 stratigraphic section of, 49, 52, 111, 114,137,151-53,152, 188, 193 superposition of, 110, 152-53,

154, 157 thickness of, 49, 121, 137, 139 track horizons in, 190-91 vertisolsin, 146, 149, 185 volcanic ash in, 148-49, 201 see also sedimentary rocks, formation of Roth, Santiago, 31,33

Saldivia, Sergio, 51, 52, 55, 143, 179 saltasaurines, 193 Saltasaurus, 74

bony scutes in skin of, 97,99, 100, 192, 193 Santa Cruz province, 29, 34,77 Saturnalia, 71,73 saurischians, 62, 65-75,66, 101-2 sauropodomorphs, 62, 66, 71-75

in Patagonia, 77-78 sauropods, 24, 31, 33, 37,47-48, 65, 72, 73-75,77,86, 87,90, 190, 129,152 adult skulls of, 91-93 cladogram of, 71 diet of, 201

extreme precociality of, 166, 173 femur of, 95

as gregarious, 159, 161-65, 173 hatchling, 165, 166,170, 173, 199,200

herding behavior of, 162,

163-65,166, 197 juvenile, 165, 166 live births and, 47-48, 55 in Patagonia, 77-78 as proven egg layers, 101, 200 quadrupedal locomotion of, 73 size of, 199

skin ornamentation of, 95 teeth of, 90, 92, 93,94 trackways of, 73, 161-65,162,

166, 190-91 see also eggs, sauropod; embryos, sauropod; titanosaurs sauropods, nesting behavior of, 24, 143-44, 161-75, 187, 197-99

adult guards in, 166,170, 171,

173, 197 as colonial, 159, 161, 166,172,

173,174, 197,200 egg distribution and, 166-73,

168, 172 juvenile creches and, 166 nests in, see nest structures parental care in, 165-73, 197 territoriality in, 161, 166 see also site fidelity scale patterns, 95-99,96, 199 scanning electron microscopes (SEMs),81,82-83,86 environmental, 82 thin gold coating required by, 82, 97

scavengers, 109,120, 123, 187, 191

192, 193 sea turtles, 79 Secernosaurus, 77 sedimentary rocks, formation of, 117-23 alluvial fans in, 46,119 chemical reactions and, 117

erosion in, 117-18 floodplains and, 118,119-23, 120

lakes in, 117-18,119,120-21, 182

laminations in, 120, 182 in ocean, 118, 121 volcanic ash in, 118-19 see also rivers and streams semilunate bone, 69 Shackelford,]. B., 155-56 Sinornithosaurus, 70 site fidelity, 52, 133, 151-60, 173, 200

at Deccan Traps, 159, 161 egg-bearing rock layers and,

151-55, 156-57 in Pyrenees Mountains, 158-59, 161

by single sauropod species, 157-58 skin, dinosaur, 97-99,101 adult sauropod, 95 bony scutes embedded in, 74, 75,

97,99, J 00, 192, 193 preserved as impressions, 50 scale patterns of, 95,96 skin, sauropod embryo, 48-49, 50, 52,89, 139, 145, 185, 193 bony scutes and, 9 7,99 cross sections of, 9 7,99 feathers absent from, 101-2 folds in, 99

microscopic examination of, 97-99

scale patterns on, 95-99, 96, 199

skull, 109

of Aucasaurus, 179,180, 182, 199

of Carnotaurus, 34, 67, 179,180 of coelurosaurs, 67 of sauropod embryos, 90, 91-93 of titanosaurs, 90

slickensides, 145-46,184-85 snakes, 57, 60, 79,97 South America, 42,75,77, 78,79, 86,91,99,119,121, 126-27, 178, 197 Soviet Union, 17 Spain, 27, 101

Pyrenees Mountains site in, 158-59, 161 species recognition, 64, 65,95 spherulitic eggs, dinosauroid, 82,

82, 83, 86 stegosaurs, 63-64,75-77,9 7 Styracosaurus, 65 superposition, 110,152-53, 154, 157

Tanzania, 73-75, 79 teeth, 109

absence of, 69,70 of cerapods, 64 mammalian, 59 of Mesozoic birds, 70 pencil-like, 73,75,78,90, 92, 93,

94, 199 reptilian, 64 spoonlike, 92

wear surfaces on, 94,173, 199 Tehuelche Indians, 27 termite, fossil, 130 Tertiary period, 121 testudoid eggs, 81 tetanurans, 66, 67-71,77 tetrapods, 57-58, 57, 107 therizinosaurs, 84, 89 theropods, 33, 37, 59, 62, 65-71, 66, 68, 78, 86, 101, 140, 141,152, 164, 199-200, 201 brooding behavior of, 164, 165, 169

cladogram of, 66 common ancestor of, 65-67 egg-laying patterns of, 86-87 eggs of, 83, 85, 86

theropods (cont.)

pack hunting by, 142,162, 198,

199, 200 in Patagonia, 77,78 prismatic eggshell of, 85 trackway of, 162, 163 see also abelisaurs; coelurosaurs thyreophorans (armored dinosaurs),

62, 63-64,97,99 Tierra del Fuego, 29 tinamou, 42

titanosaurs, 31,46, 55, 71, 73, 74, 76,91,93-95,186-87, 191-94, 201 bony scutes in skin of, 97, 99, J 00

common ancestor of, 75,93 in Patagonia, 78 pencil-like teeth of, 90, 92, 93 saltasaurines, 193 Titanosaurus, 101 T. australis, 31 T. indicus, 31 trackways, 61-63

in rock horizons, 190-91 sauropod,73, 161-65, J62, 166,

190-91 theropod, J 62, 163 Triassic period, 31, 32, 33, 34,107, 129

late, 71, 75,77,79 Triceratops, 33,65,109,120,129 Troodon, 165, 169 troodontids:

egg-laying pattern of, 86-87 embryos of, 89 tuffs, 119

Tyrannosaurus, 36, 39,62, 66, 67, 109,120,129, 200 juvenile, as feathered, 69, 101

uncinate processes, 59 uniformitarianism, 118 uranium, half-life of, 110-12

Velociraptor, 17,67,69,70, 129 vertebrae:

number of, 75 oval air holes in, 75 projecting spines on, 72, 73,75, 78,95

vertebrates, 57-58, 59, 134 amphibians, 107 cladogram of, 57 Cretaceous, 109 Paleozoic, 106-7 vertisols, 146, 149, 185 volcanic ash, 118-19, 148-49 radiometric dating of, 110-12, 154,201 volcanic rock, 118 Volkheimeria, 77 von Huene, Friederich, 33

wear surfaces, dental, 94, 173, 199 wings:

bastard, 71

convergent evolution of, 58-59, 109

folded against body, 69 Woodward, Arthur Smith, 33 World Heritage Sites, 203 wrist bones, 69, 70,73, 86

Yale University, 51,52, 55,91 yolk sac, 80

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