Index

Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations.

see also Aucasaurus garridoi; Carnotaurus Abelisaurus, 177,178 acetabulum, 60-63 Aeolosaurus, 78 Africa, 42,75, 78, 121, 197 albumen, 80 allantois, 80

Allosaurus, 66,67,109,129 alluvial fans, 46, 119 Alvarez, Walter and Luis, 16 Amargasaurus, 72, 7 3,78 amber, 128-31 Ameghino, Carlos, 30 Ameghino, Florentino, 30 American Museum of Natural History, 16-17,37,42,48,53,55, 97,138, 163 ancient DNA duplicated at, 130 Gobi Desert expeditions sponsored by, 17, 155-56, 165 news conference at, 125-27, 132 Amygalodon, 77 Anabisetia, 77 Anatotitan, 109 Andesaurus, 78 Andes Mountains, 29, 30

Andrews, Roy Chapman, 17, 155-56

ankylosaurs, 63-64,75-77,97,99

Apatosaurus, 47, 109

Appalachian Mountains, 107

aragonite, 81

Archaeopteryx, 70

Archosauria, 57, 60

101, 109-10, 129,183 Argentinosaurus, 38, 75, 76, 78,100, 101, 109

armored dinosaurs (thyreophorans),

62, 63-64,97,99 arms, 34, 73,141, 179,180,199 elongated, 67, 70 folded against body, 69 Asia, 75, 79

Auca Mahuevo, 2 3-25,28,41-54, 56,68, 105-6,126,129, 133-50,166-75, 183-96, 197-203 abundance of food at, 168 looting of, 194,202-3 origin of name, 49 predators in, 121, 171, 185-86, 187, 195,198, 199-200, 201; see Aucasaurus garridoi protective measures for, 203

Auca Mahuevo (cont.) size of, 153, 190-91 see also eggs, sauropod; rock layers Auca Mahuida, 36-3 7,41,42-44,

49, 54, 187 Auca Mahuida, village of, 136 Aucasaurus garridoi, 177-82,181, 185, 195,198, 201 arms of, 141, 179, 180, 199 completeness of, 180, 182 death of, 182

discovery of, 139-40,177,180 muscle casts and impressions of,

179-80 naming of, 180 publication of, 182 quarrying of, 140-41, 143, 144, 147-48

rock laver containing, 179-80, 182 size of, 186

skull of, 179, 180, 182,199 transporting of, 149-50 Australia, 79

Bahia Blanca, Argentina, 29 Barda del Medio, Argentina, 42 basalt, 118 "bastard wing," 71 bats, 58-59,60 Beagle, HMS, 29 Berkeley Geochronology Center, 114-15

bipedal locomotion, 58,63, 64, 65, 73

Bird, Roland T, 163-65 birds, 16-17, 18,23,42,51, 101, 130,132,164, 169 bats vs., 58-59

66, 67,69-71 crocodiles vs., 59-60 eggs of, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85-86, 134, 157-58

Enantiornithes, 70-71 flight in, 70-71 gizzards of, 59, 69 Jurassic, 109 juvenile creches of, 166 as maniraptors, 69-71, 85-86 Mesozoic, 36-37, 70-71 nesting colonies of, 173 parental care by, 164, 166,

169-71 wishbones of, 67 body temperature, regulation of, 69 Bolivia, 33

Bonaparte, Jose, 16, 34, 38,77 bone beds, 64, 161, 166 bony crests, 64-65,77 bony scutes, 74, 75,97,99,100, 192, 193

brachiosaurids, 71, 73-75,91,93, 163

Brachiosaurus, 47, 73-75, 101, 109,

129 Brazil, 71

brooding behavior, 17,164, 165,169 Brunton compass, 38, 114, 149 Buratovich, Captain, 30

calcite,81-82,83,85, 158 calcium carbonate, 79-80, 81-82 camarasaurids, 71, 73 Camarasaurus, 71, 101 Canada, 203

carbon-14 dating, 111-12 Carmen Funes Museum, 38-39,42, 51,55, 142-43, 144, 147, 149-50, 184,185 carnivorous dinosaurs, 51, 60, 63-64,65-71,84, 89,97, 109-10, 129, 140 at Auca Mahuevo, 121,171, 185-86, 187,195,198, 199-200, 201; see also Aucasaurus garridoi see also theropods

Carnotaurus, 66, 77, 141, 177-79, 178, 181, 199 arms of, 34,67 skull of, 34, 67, 179,180 Cenozoic era, 106 cerapods, 62, 64-65 ceratopsians (horned dinosaurs),

33,63,64,65,75-77, 109,156 ceratosaurs, 134 China, 30, 67,70, 89, 101, 121 Chubut province, 29, 33, 34, 51,77 clade, definition of, 56 cladistics, 56-75

of dinosaurs, 60-75 of eggshell structure, 85,134 method of, 56, 59 principle of parsimony in, 58-59, 69

separately evolved similarities in, 58-59

shared characteristics in, 56-59, 69

see also common ancestors cladograms, 56-57 of dinosaurs, 62 of sauropods, 71 of theropods, 66 of vertebrates, 57 cloning, 128-32 coal swamps, 107 cockroaches, ancient, 107 coelacanth, 107

coelurosaurs, 62, 66, 67-71, 101

feathered, 67-69 collarbones, fused, 67 common ancestors, 56-57

of birds and Enantiornithes, 71 of birds and maniraptors, 85-86 of brachiosaurids, 73 of cerapods, 64 of coelurosaurs, 6 7,69 of dicraeosaurids, 73,93 of dinosaurs, 60-61, 63, 64, 65, 85, 169-71

of diplodocids, 73,93 of duckbills, 64 of Marginocephalia, 65 of ornithischians, 63 of saurischians, 65, 73 of sauropodomorphs, 71 of tetanurans, 56 of tetrapods, 67 of theropods, 65-67 of thyreophorans, 63 of titanosaurs, 75,93 of vertebrates, 57 Compsognathus, 67 creches, juvenile, 166 crests, bony, 64-65, 77 Cretaceous period, 31, 32, 34,75, 89,108,109-10,113,119,121 early, 72, 73, 77, 78,79 extinction in, 16, 24, 106, 193 insects in amber of, 129 late, 33,49, 55, 56, 77,78,79, 86,

94,97,164, 178, 179, 187 middle, 78 crocodiles, 46, 57, 59-60,95,99, 130,132 eggshells of, 85 eggs of, 81, 82,82, 85 nesting colonies of, 173 number of eggs in clutch of, 168 parental care by, 169, 171 crocodiloid eggs, 81,82

Darwin, Charles, 29-30 Davenport Ranch site, 163-65 death, cause of, 24, 117-23 of Aucasaurus garridoi, 182 floods as, 122-23, 135,146, 157, 169,174, 175, 188,199,201 death assemblages, 64 Death Valley, 119 Deccan Traps, site in, 159, 161 dicraeosaurids, 72, 73, 78,91,93,94 Dicraeosaurus, 73, 78 Di Iorio, Osvaldo, 54

dinosauroid prismatic eggs, 82,

83-85, 86 dinosauroid spherulitic eggs, 82,82, 83,86

Dinosaur Provincial Park, 203 dinosaurs, 55-78, 57,62, 120 cladistic analysis of, 60-75 cladogram of, 62 cloning of, 128-32 common ancestors of, 60-61, 63,

64,65,85,169-71 earliest known, 60,67,71,107, 129

egg-laying patterns of, 86-87 extinction of, 16, 24, 106,193 hip structure of, see hip structure juvenile, as feathered, 69, 101-2 in Patagonia, 30-34, 36,75-78 posture of, 60-63, 61 research on, 35

species recognition among, 64, 65,95

see also eggs, dinosaur; specific dinosaurs diplodocids, 71, 73, 75, 78,91,92,

101,109 DNA, cloning of, 128-32 dodo bird, 139

dome-headed dinosaurs (pachy-

cephalosaurs), 63, 64, 65 dragonflies, ancient, 107 duckbilled dinosaurs (hadrosaurs),

63,64-65,77,78,89,169 ducks, mallard, 157-58

egg-laying patterns, 86-87 Egg Mountain, 133,203 eggs, 79-82

albumen of, 80 allantois of, 80

classification of, 80-82 cloning and, 131-32 of crocodiles, 81,82, 82, 85 sizes of, 80, 83 of turtles, 79,81,82 yolk sac of, 80 eggs, dinosaur, 17, 23-24,79-87, 155-56,164 classification of, 82 discovery sites of, 79, 80 first discovery of, 24 lifetime variations in, 157-58 misidentified, 47, 156, 165 shapes of, 83, 84 sizes of, 83,84 Triassic, 34

see also eggshells, dinosaur; embryos, dinosaur eggs, sauropod, 23-25, 29,45,46, 47-54,101, 133-50,165, 197-201

adult skeletons associated with,

186-87, 191-94, 195 burial of, 122-23, 157,169,174,

175,199, 201 clusters of, 49, 52-53,138, 143-44,145,146-47,149, 156,167-69,168, 171-73,172 clutch size of, 158-59,167-68,

172,173,188,197 crushing of, 146,185 discovery of, 47-49 distribution of, 87, 133, 138-39, 141, 145, 146-47,149,156, 161,166-73,168,172,183, 184, 186,201 identifying species of, 24,47-48, 50-51,54,55,75,78, 86,133, 144,150,183,186-87,193, 201

media coverage of, 125-28,132,

134,150,153,194 megaloolithid, 86, 87,167,168 preparation of, 51, 53, 54, 89-91

publication of paper on, 91,

102-3, 123, 125, 127 rock layers bearing, 49, 52, 137, 138-39, 141, 142, 143-44, 145-47,149,151-55, 156-57, 166-73,184-85,186,188, 190-91, 193 round shape of, 55, 83,84 size of, 23-24,47,55,83,84 spatial relationships of, 171-73,

172, 197 trampling of, 161, 169 see also eggshells, sauropod; embryos, sauropod eggshells, 79-82,122 aragonite in, 81 flexible, 79, 81 functions of, 80,81 hard, 79-80,81-82,81 ornamentation of, 81, 83 pores of, 80-81,83 soft, 79,81, 107 eggshells, dinosaur, 79-86

calcite in, 81-82, 83, 85, 158 calcium carbonate in, 79-80, 81-82

cladistic analysis of, 85, 134 cross sections of, 82, 86 crystalline layers of, 79-80, 81,

82, 83-86 microstructure of, 81, 82-83,82,

86,144 organic core of, 85 structural classification of,

81-82,82, 83-86 thickness of, 86 eggshells, sauropod:

microstructure of, 157 ornamentation of, 83, 144,

157-58 as spherulitic type, 83, 86 thickness of, 4 7,86 Egidio Feruglio Museum, 51 elephant bird, 83

oviraptorid, 47, 89, 165 rarity of, 48, 89 embryos, sauropod, 24-25,47-49, 50-52,86, 89-103,98, 102, 137, 145, 149, 166 adults vs., 90, 91 cloning of, 128-32 dental wear surfaces in, 94, 173, 199

identifying species of, 47, 50-51,

78, 87,91-95 leg bones of, 51,95 as neosauropods, 99-101 pencil-like teeth of, 90, 93,94, 199

preparation of, 53 size of, 95,170, 173, 199 skull of, 90,91-93 see also skin, sauropod embryo Enantiornithes, 70-71 England, 31

environmental conditions, 24, 35, 49,52,117,118,190,200 climate in, 184-85,195,19 7-99 plants in, 201 see also floodplains Eoraptor, 60,67, 129 Epachthosaurus, 78 erosion, 117-18

evolution, 16-17, 29, 51, 56, 85, 86, 101, 106-9 convergent, 58-59, 73,93,109 time scale of, 32, 106-10 see also cladistics expedition of 1996, 36-37, 39 expedition of 1997, 16,17-18,

23-25,37-39,41-54,105-6, 122,126,139,145,153, 157 crew of, 37-39,42,51-53 equipment for, 37, 38 funding of, 37, 39, 125 government permits for, 38, 39

expedition of 1999, 133-50

138-39 funding of, 134

predator skeleton discovered by, see Aucasaurus garridoi expedition of 2000,183-96 crew of, 184-85, 186,189 funding of, 183

predator skeleton discovered by,

185-86,195,200,201 sauropod skeletons discovered by, 186-87, 191-94,195 extinctions, 107

Cretaceous, 16,24, 106, 193 Ice Age mammal, 106 modern, 139

fault zones, 145 feathers, 59, 86

in bastard wing, 71 of coelurosaurs, 67-69,70 of juvenile dinosaurs, 69, 101-2 of maniraptors, 70 femur, 61, 63

of sauropod embryos, 95 fish, 57, 57, 106-7 floodplains, 64, 167,173-75,174, 182, 187, 188 environment of, 53, 118, 119-23, 120

hummocky surface of, 146, 149, 173

floods, 119-20,135-36,167-68,187 as cause of death, 122-23, 135, 146,157,169,174,175,188, 199,201 footprints, 33, 161, 163

see also trackways fossil collecting, 44-47, 155-56 commercial, 194, 202 equipment for, 38 by poachers, 194,202-3 preparation in, 45-46

prospecting in, 45,47, 54 protective plaster jacket applied in, 38, 46, 52-53,144,145, 147, 149, 191 quarrying in, 45,46, 51 tracing source of fossils in, 45 transporting fossils in, 45-46, 53, 144, 147-48, 149-50 fossilization.45,83, 123, 199 in amber, 128-31 high temperatures during, 130 of soft tissues, 48, 89, 120, 129, 201

fossil record, 58,60, 106-9, 157 fossils:

color and mineral content of, 45 geological context of, 202 looting of, 194,202-3 marine, 29, 110, 115 museums as custodians of, 202 preparation of, 45-46, 55,89-91 France, 24, 87, 101, 167 frill, 65

Fundacion Antorchas, 183

Gasparinisaura, 77 gastroliths, 69 geckonoid eggs, 81 geckos, 81,82

genealogical relationships, see cladistics Genyodectes serus, 33 geologic and evolutionary time scale, 32, 106-10 geomagnetic poles, reversal of,

112-15, 139, 154 Germany, 70,73-75 Getty, Ann and Gordon, Foundation, 134, 183 Giganotosaurus, 38-39,67,68, 109,

110,142-43,186, 200,201 Gila monsters, 99 glaciers, 117, 118 glyptodonts, 29,30, 106

Gobi Desert, 17,47, 146,155-56, 164, 165

GPS (global positioning system)

units, 38 Granger, Walter, 17,155-56 Greece, ancient, 27 Green River site, 121 griffin, 31

ground sloths, giant, 29, 30, 106

hadrosaurs (duckbilled dinosaurs), 63,64-65,77,78,89,169

hand:

in bastard wing, 71 of bats vs. birds, 59 grasping, 60,65, 73 of maniraptors, 69 three-fingered, 67, 70 Hennig, Willi, 56 herbivorous dinosaurs, 60, 63-65, 69,71-75,89,109, 129, 140 gut of, 63 see also sauropods herding behavior, 162, 163-65, 166, 197

Herrerasaurus, 33,60,62, 67, 129 hip structure, 60-63, 85 ilium of, 67 pubic boot of, 186 pubis bone of, 63, 69,70 horned dinosaurs (ceratopsians), 33,63,64,65,75-77,109, 156

Horner, Jack, 133,169 Hypacrosaurus, 89

Ice Age, 42

ending of, 106 mammals of, 29-30,30, 106 ilium, 67 Ilokelesia, 179 India, 31,79, 86, 101, 179

Deccan Traps region of, 159,161 Indian Ocean, 107,139

InfoQuest Foundation, 39, 127,

134, 183 insects, 54,107,109,120 in amber, 128-31

Janenschia, 75 jaw joint, 64

Jurassic Park, 67, 70,128,129,130, 131, 132

Jurassic period, 31, 32, 34,107-9, 129

193 middle, 77

Komodo dragons, 168 Kritosaurus, 77

lakes, 117-18, 119, 120-21, 182 La Plata Museum, 30-31, 33 Liaoning Lake site, 121 Ligabueino, 77, 78 limestone, 121

posture of, 61 Lockley, Martin, 163, 165 locomotion, 60-63

bipedal, 58,63, 64,65, 73 quadrupedal, 63,64, 65,73 running, 69 Lydekker, Richard, 31-33

McKenna, Phillip, Foundation, 183 Madagascar, 99,139,179 Magellan, Ferdinand, 27 magnetic analysis, see paleomag-

netic analysis magnetite, 113 magnetometer, 113 Maiasaura, 169 mammals, 57, 58-59,107, 134

Ice Age, 29-30,30, 106 maniraptors, 66, 69-71, 85-86 egg-laying patterns of, 86-87

Marginocephalia, 62, 64,65 marine fossils, 29, 110, 115 Mauritius Island, 138-39 megaloolithid eggs, 86, 87, 167, 168 Mesozoic era, 24, 31, 32, 36-37,47, 56,64,70-71,75,106,107-9, 129, 130 molds, nest structure, 189-90 Mongolia, 30,94

Gobi Desert of, 17,47, 146, 155-56,164, 165 Mount St. Helens, 118-19 Museum of the Rockies, 133, 169 Mussaurus, 77, 79

National Geographic, 125, 127, 153 National Geographic Society, 39,

125,134,183 Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 134,189 Nature, 123, 125, 127 Nature Conservancy, 203 Nemegtosaurus, 90, 94 neosauropods, 99-101 nesting behavior, see sauropods, nesting behavior of nest structures, 183, 187-90, 195, 197,200 molds of, 189-90 Neuquen, Argentina, 30-31,38,44, 54

78, 110,203 Neuquensaurus, 78,193 North America, 30, 36,64, 73, 75,

77,79, 86, 109, 120 Novacek, Michael, 17 Novas, Fernando, 34

ocean sediments, 118, 121 organic core, 85

ornithischians, 62, 63-65, 86, 87, 140, 165,169 in Patagonia, 75-77, 78

ornithoid eggs, 81, 82,82, 85-86 ornithomimids, 66, 69 Ornithomimus, 129 Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 165 ostrich, 69, 83, 132

number of eggs in clutch of, 168 Oviraptor,47, 156, 165,169 oviraptorcids, 84

brooding behavior of, 164, 165, 169

egg-laying pattern of, 86-87 eggs of, 84, 155,164, 165 embryos of, 47,89,165

pachycephalosaurs (dome-headed dinosaurs), 63, 64,65 Pachycephalosaurus, 65 pack hunting, 142,162, 198,199, 200

paleomagnetic analysis, 17, 38, 112-15,113,137-38,139, 143,145,154 paleontological expeditions, 15-18,

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