The thick, domed skulls of pachycephalosaurs earned them the name "bone-headed dinosaurs." Rival males used to bash their heads together, their brains protected by the thick bone. Pachycephalosaurs probably had a good sense of smell, which would have allowed them to detect nearby predators and escape before the predators got too close.

Horn cluster Stygimoloch had a cluster of horns behind its dome. But the horns were probably just for show, rather than of practical use.

Lots of nodules Prenocephale's head had a well-developed solid dome and small nodules on the back of the skull.

Pachycephalosaur facts

• The name pachycephalosaur means "thick-headed lizard."

• They ranged in length from 3 ft (90 cm) to 15 ft (4.6 m).

• Diet included fruits, leaves, and insects.

Stegoceras Goat-sized Stegoceras was about 8 ft (2.4 m) long. Several Stegoceras skulls have been found with domes of various thicknesses. The domes of juveniles were not as thick or high as those of adults, especially adult males.

Prenocephale ran toward each other at full tilt

Thick skull The solid dome of Pachycephalosaurus could be as thick as 9 in (23 cm). Small knobs and spikes fringed the dome and decorated the small nose

Head bangers Male pachycephalosaurs may have had headbutting bouts when fighting over territory and females, the way mountain goats do today.

The name Stegoceras means "horny roof."

The name Stegoceras means "horny roof."

Short arms and small hands

Stiff back Stegoceras, like all pachycephalosaurs, was bipedal, but it was unlikely to have been fast on its feet. It kept its back level, with the front of its body balanced by the stiffened heavy tail.

Short arms and small hands

Psittacosaurus skull

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