Necks

Barosaurus neck vertebra

For dinosaurs, as with other animals, the neck was a vital channel between the head and body. Food passed from the mouth to the stomach through the neck; air was fed along the windpipe between the nostrils and lungs; nerves carried messages to and from the brain and body, and blood traveled through arteries and veins. All of these lifelines, as well as powerful muscles, were supported on the framework of neck vertebrae (neck bones).

Barosaurus neck vertebra

Long and flexible Herbivorous long-necked dinosaurs like Barosaurus probably used their flexible necks for cropping leaves from a large area of low-lying foliage while standing still. But if they needed to, they could have reached up to the leaves in tall trees.

Muscles were attached to spines on the vertebrae

Muscles were attached to spines on the vertebrae

Barosaurus's neck was 30 ft (9.1 m) long.

Strong and light The long neck of Diplodocus was made up of 15 vertebrae. These bones had deep hollows inside them to make them lightweight, although they remained very strong. A notch on top of the vertebrae carried a strong ligament which supported the neck in the way that wires support a suspension bridge.

Short and stout Allosaurus, a fierce and terrifying carnivore, had a short and stout neck. The neck bones were cupped tightly together to give a very mobile and curved neck. When Allosaurus's jaws bit into prey, powerful neck muscles pulled the massive head up and back, tearing chunks of flesh from the victim.

Powerful jaws with huge, sharp teeth

Long, flexible neck-

Powerful jaws with huge, sharp teeth

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