This carnosaur hunts alone, via ambush, or in small family groups. Sometimes, when cover is scarce, one adult will sound the alarm call of a particular species to stampede them in the general direction of the other, which is lying in wait. Although evil, the parents take excellent care of their young, though they often subject dying prey to torture as they teach the young carnosaurs how to kill. The mating season itself is the scene of unimaginable bugling and other cries, as each male tries to outdo the others with the variety and quality of calls he can make.


Primarily an ambush predator, Sirenisaurus macrolophus is ready for open combat if necessary. This is important, because its success as a duckbill-hunter means that all the other carnivores in the area like to follow along, to steal the kill if they can and scavenge from the scraps if they can't. When a sirenisaur seeks to lure prey into an ambush by imitating the cry of an injured animal, it often inadvertently attracts a carnosaur seeking an easy meal, and Storm Valley carnosaurs such as Allosaurus temnonychus and Tyrannosaurus linnormus take disappointment quite poorly, indeed. Against smaller opponents, it also has a pair of special attacks:

Improved Grab (Ex): A sirenisaur that hits a Medium-size

Spinoflagella peloros

Huge Animal

Hit Dice:

14d10+98 (175 hp)


-2 (Dex)


25 ft.


20 (-2 size, -2 Dex, +14 natural)


Tail lash +15 melee




10 ft. by 20 ft./20 ft.

Special Attacks:

Coiling lash

Special Qualities:

Scent, defensive crouch


Fort +17, Ref +7, Will +7


Str 22, Dex 7, Con 25,

Int 6, Wis 8, Cha 10


Listen +4, Spot +4


Warm forest, desert, plains, marsh


Small herds (5-8)

Challenge Rating:







18-25 HD (Gargantuan)

Spinoflagella peloros, the "heavy spiny whip," is a giant nodosaur. This is an ancestor of the ankylosaurs, but with the bony tail club replaced by spines in abundance. In the case of S. peloros, the tail is now a long, supple whip of incredible agility, at least when wielded by its owner. The entire animal is a mottled white and either olive green or light brown in color, depending on its choice of habitat. It reaches a maximum length of at least 30 feet.


Spinoflagella peloros lives in small, irritable herds, just like its ankylosaur relatives. They use their lashing tails to drive out not only predators, but rival grazing herbivores as well. The herds are matriarchal in terms of leadership, and wander about constantly in search of good grazing land. When breeding season comes around, the dinosaurs lay their eggs wherever they happen to be, not having traditional nesting grounds like many other species do. S. peloros lays up to a dozen eggs, from which only two or three will have young both hatch and live to reach adulthood.


Spinoflagella fights with its flexible spiny tail, depending on its armored shell for protection from the enemy's return blows. It can make trip attacks with its tail. It has two special tactics:

Coiling Lash (Ex): The long, supple, spined tail of Spinoflagella can, upon striking something Medium-size or smaller, immediately coil tightly around it, letting the spines sink in. The creature can decide whether to withdraw its tail or let it coil around a target.

If it chooses to coil its tail, Medium-sized or smaller targets must make a Reflex save (DC 18) or be entangled by the tail. If the target makes the save, the spinoflagella must withdraw its tail. If the tail does coil successfully, the tail itself can be targeted by other creatures (AC 20, 35 hp). In order for the target to move outside the spinoflagella's reach, it must succeed in an opposed Strength check. Characters can try to wriggle out of the tail with an Escape Artist or Dexterity check (DC 16), but in doing so they take 2d6 points of damage from the spines.

If the tail is severed, the spinoflagella loses its main attack. If not severed by the next combat round, the spinoflagella can withdraw its tail with devastating effect. The spines inflict long, gaping wounds on the victim as they are torn out, doing half again as much damage as the initial tail strike did (i.e., 6d6 points of damage instead of 4d6) with a threat range of 19-20. One such double strike against a large carnosaur can transform it from being king of the jungle to being a limping cripple, while against smaller foes, this tactic often proves fatal.

Defensive Crouch (Ex): A Spinoflagella feeling defensive can crouch, tuck its head in and draw its legs up beneath its body. This minimizes the already few vulnerable areas and grants a +4 circumstance bonus to AC. When crouched as such, the Spinoflagella cannot move or attack. They generally do this only when injured or facing overwhelming odds, such as a "wolf pack" of carnosaurs or raptors.


The last 10-12 feet of this creature's tail can, when suitably dried and treated, serve as a barbed whip, useful both in combat and in driving recalcitrant dinosaur pack animals, while the shell can serve as armor for large dinosaur beasts of burden and mounts.


Hypselosaurus machairurus Saltasaurus testudostegos Spinosauropoda cretasus Titanosaurus pilumurus Titanosaurus spinurus Titanosaurus talarurus Colossal Animals 30d10+210 (375 hp) -3 (Dex) 80 ft.

Tail +26 melee, kick +14 melee, bite +10


See below



Listen +4, Spot +20, Wilderness Lore +10

Hit Dice: Initiative: Speed: AC:


Damage: Face/Reach: Special Attacks: Special Qualities: Saves: Abilities:


Climate/Terrain: Forest, hills, plains

Organization: Challenge Rating: Treasure: Alignment: Advancement:


Neutral Good 31-45 HD (Colossal)

The original titanosaurs were a group of sauropod dinosaurs that averaged about 40 feet in length, though a few got far larger. Their most distinguishing characteristic was the nodular bony armor plates embedded in their hides, providing them with some protection against the predators of their era. Now the titanosaurs of Storm Valley have evolved a complete carapace, like that of a tortoise, to protect their torsos, and this armor extends down their tails, all of which end in a weapon of some sort. In the case of Spinosauropoda cretasus, the shell is even covered with short spines. These beasts are all the same size, being roughly 60 feet in length, with heads perhaps 25-30 feet off the ground, and their behavior is largely the same, so they will all be examined together.


Although they are among the best-protected of all sauropods, and thus most suited for a life alone, the titanosaurs of Storm Valley still gather in herds like their unarmored kin. Much of what is true about the brachiosaurs holds true for them as well in regard to migration and other behavior. They are more aggressive than their kin, as well as slightly more intelligent, and any potential threat in the neighborhood of the herd will be set upon and driven off by several of the younger and stouter males.

The females lay eggs once every six to eight years,

laying up to a dozen at a time. Typically, only three or four young ever reach maturity, and it takes a titanosaur 30 years to reach full adulthood. They may live as long as 175 or even 200 years, and remember virtually everything that took place in that time.


These dinosaurs trust their armor and tail weapons in combat. Besides providing the usual armor protection, the spiny shell of Spinosauropoda will inflict 1d6 points of damage on any creature that touches it (Reflex save (DC 22) to avoid). All of these beasts can kick for 6d12+16 damage and bite for 2d6+8. The real variety comes in their tail weapons and damage, which are:

• Hypselosaurus machairurus: A massive curved blade of bone which does 4d10 damage; machairurus means "machaira tail," as the blade resembles a thick curved sword of ancient times called the machaira.

• Saltasaurus testudoste-gos: The tail weapon of this "tortoise-roofed" titanosaur is the complete tail, covered in rings of nodular armor, making it stiff but deadly. It does 3dl0+4 points of damage.

• Spinosauropoda cretasus: This animal's tail is long and flexible despite the bony armor, and it is covered with short spines like those on the carapace, enabling it to do 2dl0+8 points of damage.

• Titanosaurus pilumurus: This "javelin tailed" dinosaur's tail ends in a long bony point or spearhead which inflicts 4dl0+10 points of damage on the target.

• Titanosaurus spinu-rus: This "spiny tailed" sauropod's tail ends in four spikes, like those of a stegosaur, which do

4d10+16 points of damage.

• Titanosaurus talarurus: The "basket tailed" dinosaur T. talaru-rus has a tail that ends in a bony club like that of the anky-losaurs, and which inflicts 4d10+12 points of damage on any foe.

Trample (Ex): Any creature that comes near a titanosaur can expect to be trampled. In combat, the titanosaur will actively attempt to trample any and all targets within reach. This attack causes 5d12 points of damage, or half that if the enemy foregoes an attack of opportunity and attempts a Reflex save (DC 25).


The armored carapaces of these titanosaurs can be used to make armor for domesticated dinosaurs. One carapace can provide armor for a huge creature, two for a gargantuan creature, and four for a colossal one. A single carapace can be split in half to provide armor for two large creatures.


Hit Dice: Initiative: Speed: AC:



Face/Reach: Special Qualities: Saves: Abilities:


Velociraptor homoides Medium-Size Animal

Longspear or short sword +3 melee; sling or shortbow +4 ranged

Longspear 1d8+2 or short sword 1d6+2; or sling 1d3+2 or shortbow 1d6


Hide +10, Listen +12, Move Silently +11,

Spot +12, Wilderness Lore +12, others (see below)

Climate/Terrain: Organization:

Challenge Rating: Treasure: Alignment: Advancement:

Any land

Solitary, hunting party (2-10), or tribe (11400) 2

Standard Lawful neutral By character class

Velociraptor homoides is a "man-shaped" descendant of the original dinosaur velociraptor, and shaped like a man it is. The tail is either entirely gone or is a mere stump, its size varying among individuals, while the snout is only slightly more pronounced than the muzzle of an ape. The - animal? being? - walks upright, its posture being as straight at that of a soldier on parade. In addition, all the claws and teeth are so greatly reduced as to be useless in combat; even the original slashing claws are mere dull spikes an inch long on each heel. To compensate, they have an opposable thumb.

V. homoides ranges in coloration from a drab olive green to muddy brown.


Aside from dracotherizinos, velociraptor homoides is the only known "civilized" dinosaur race in Storm Valley. These creatures live in villages or cave systems, depending on the terrain they call home, but they are found in all terrestrial environments in Storm Valley. Mountains, hills, forests, jungles, marshes, plains, and deserts alike have all been adapted to magnificently.

In many respects, these raptors are like their uncivilized brethren in the Main Valley. However, there are a number of differences, such as the fact that these dinosaurs actually build huts and other shelters for protection from the elements. The huts can be made of anything from wood and thatching to stone, clay, and even dinosaur bones, while great tents made of dinosaur leather are also popular.

Most raptor tribes lead a settled existence, but those who dwell in the harsher portions of the northern deserts have taken up the life of the nomad, wandering to and fro in search of food and water, carrying their hide tents and the wooden stick and large bones used to support them everywhere they go. There are even reports of tribes dwelling in the high mountains, clad in clothing made from pterosaur fur. The tribes are also led by the males, rather than the females, and combat between would-be leaders is fought using artificial weapons rather than natural ones. Shamans in these tribes know Alchemy as one of their skills, and given the species' lack of natural weapons, this skill is naturally more important than it is for the original velociraptor (or deinonychus). The same goes for raptor armorers, bowyers, fletchers, and weaponsmiths, though these work without metal.

These creatures are fond of diplomacy, both among their own kind and relating to other dinosaur species. They were among the prime movers concerning the siege of Fort Phil Kearny, and have been responsible for planning many of the more clever attacks, such as the aerial bombing and poisoning of the fort's water supply. Although they hunt and eat other dinosaurs, they always leave at least one species in their territory strictly alone, in exchange for using it as a go-between when the tribe wishes to negotiate with another species.


Like the original species, velociraptor homoides has specialized warrior, tactician, and shaman types, who are treated similar to the character classes for normal velociraptors. The only difference is that they fight with artificial weapons.

V. homoides uses the teeth, horns, claws, and spikes of other

dinosaur species to produce longspears and short swords, with which they often fight in a rude phalanx formation. They also produce both large and small wooden shields and hide armor to boost their armor class. Both the sling and the shortbow have been invented, and these are used to rain stones and arrows on top of an enemy to disrupt his preparations for combat. Large tribes and widespread alliances mean that these creatures can sometimes field an army numbering in the thousands, and this has become more common since those troublesome humans appeared.

These creatures have special equipment as well. When given the time, raptor craftsmen can produce masterwork versions of the few weapons and armor types they have. Alchemy-savvy shamans can produce poisons of all types, acids, alchemist's fire, slippery greases and oils that make an enemy lose his footing on a treated area (make a Reflex save (DC 18 to 24) or fall flat on your back), lamp oil, gunpowder bombs, tanglefoot bags, and even smoke-sticks and tindertwigs.

To make matters worse, the insect life of Storm Valley includes bees, and the tribes often keep them around, both for their production of honey and beeswax and because hurled hives filled with angry bees make excellent missile weapons. (Treat as a thrown weapon, range increment 20 ft., damage 1d4 plus target is stunned (Will save, DC 18 to resist) as he tries to beat off the bees. Bees continue to attack the target for 2d4 rounds or until he is submerged underwater, lit on fire, or runs more than 300 feet from the hurled beehive.)

And if that isn't enough, many tribes have scavenged human and alien weapons and other high-tech gear from shipwrecked victims and failed expeditions, and have learned to use at least some of it. Naturally, lacking repair facilities, spare parts, and ammunition or energy cell resupply, they can't rely on them all the time, but once they've discovered how potent the thing is, they'll keep it carefully stored, until the time comes when all conventional defenses have failed and they really need it.

Thus, characters who fight their way into a raptor village may find themselves being fired on with such things as whisper rifles and laser guns towards the end of the battle. All of the raptor tribes in the vicinity of Fort Phil Kearny are now reasonably well-equipped, and their skills in combat and their powerful dinosaur allies help them keep in supply.


Aside from their value as friends, allies, and/or servants, these dinosaurs have nothing anyone would want, their bodies being useless from a pharmacological point of view.

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