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If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?
Just after the arrival of a new paradigm, things are muddled and confused. Some questions have been answered but more have been raised. Like species after the punctuation of biological equilibrium, science is now evolving rapidly. It is not always a pretty sight as some continue to hang back while others shoulder in. Because it is hard to know which research directions are apt to be the most fruitful, false leads are followed and dead-end sidings are entered. The old methods and theories prove unable to explicate the new paradigm and new methods have to be invented. The immediate aftermath of the arrival of a new paradigm presents many niches of opportunity into which the nimble, the young turks, and the outsiders can move. (This was the state of physics during the 1930s and 1940s, of which a young turk named Luis Alvarez took full advantage.) In time, these birthing pangs recede, scientists turn to extending and perfecting the new paradigm, and the cycle begins anew.
As mentioned earlier, large, round eggs such as the ones we had found in Patagonia had been often identified as belonging to sauropods, and those from the end of the Cretaceous were usually attributed to titanosaurs. This preliminary identification had been based on circumstantial evidence, including the large size of the eggs, the occurrence of titanosaur fossils in the same rock layers as the eggs, and that these types of eggs are found only in deposits that contain skeletal remains of titanosaurs. However, sauropod dinosaurs had not previously been discovered inside any of the round eggs attributed to these dinosaurs, so we could not be certain of this identification. In fact, because of this very reason we could not be sure that sauropods laid eggs at all, an uncertainty that led some paleontologists to speculate that sauropods gave birth to live young.
Insects have been around for more than 400 million years. Dinosaurs (non-avian) only lasted 180 million. What determines how long families, genera, and species survive When biological and physical events impact a species so that the death rate continuously exceeds the birth rate, that life form has begun a downward spiral towards extinction. Ultimately a low population threshold is reached where recovery is impossible and the fate of the species is sealed. That loss has a ripple effect throughout the ecosystem, the severity of which depends on the importance of the species. Demise of a keystone species invokes the greatest aftermath the cessation of one with global distribution has worldwide consequences, producing a cascade effect throughout the species range. Depending on the organism's importance, the effect can be short or long term, but nothing disappears from the earth without producing some change.
Because the ichthyosaur body was optimized for living full time in the water, like a dolphin's, these animals could not come on land to lay eggs like other reptiles. Ichthyosaurs solved the problem of giving birth by evolving the ability to retain their eggs inside the body and give birth to live young when the eggs hatched. There are a surprising number of fossils illustrating that ichthyosaurs gave birth to live young. Some fossil specimens show several unborn babies in the body cavity of the mother. One remarkable specimen of Stenopterygius (Early Jurassic, Germany) preserved an ichthyosaur newborn emerging tail first from the mother's birth canal (as in modern whales), its head still inside the mother. Other specimens show the remains of babies within the body cavity of the mother or in close proximity to the mother after having just been born. Most ichthyosaurs gave birth to one to two young at a time, although as many as 11 have been seen with one specimen.
Sunned themselves on the shore and went into the ocean in search of fish when they were hungry. Nothosaurs probably laid their eggs on land like their fully terrestrial reptilian ancestors. Interestingly, specimens of the nothosaurlike sauropterygian Keichousaurus have recently been found with unborn young inside, indicating that these creatures (and possibly also nothosaurs) gave birth to live young.
The plcsiosaur Thalassomedon, a representative of a group of marine reptiles that thrived for about 100 million years from the Triassic to the Cretaceous periods and then, for reasons not understood, became extinct. Some had long necks, some had short necks some were petite, and some were gigantic. Some had sharp little teeth like a python, while others had 8-inch daggers that rivaled the fearsome dental equipment of T. rex. Like all reptiles, they breathed air, but some, unlike any living reptiles, probably gave birth to living young underwater. (Female sea turtles come ashore to lay their eggs.) Sea turtles are the only living reptiles that have four flippers, so we have to compare the four-finned plesiosaurs to them, but whereas the turtles arc slow swimmers, some of the plesiosaurs were aggressive predators and had to chase down their prey. Turtles are encased in a pair of shells, known as the carapace (top) and the plastron (bottom , and although the plesiosaurs had no shells,...
Plesiosaurs, pliosaurs, and turtles probably hauled themselves onto beaches to lay eggs, the way modern turtles do. Ichthyosaurs did not leave the water since they were fully adapted to life at sea and gave birth to live young. By the time the dinosaurs died out, all sea reptiles, apart from the turtles, had become extinct, too. The reason for this is as mysterious as the disappearance of
The reproduction of ichthyosaurs was formerly thought to resemble that of present-day aquatic reptiles such as sea turtles, which must use their fins to laboriously crawl ashore on beaches in order to lay eggs. The elegant adaptation of the ichthyosaur body form to high-speed swimming, however, appears to have eliminated their ability to maneuver adequately on land, and this would suggest that the animals gave birth to live young like dolphins. The Holzmaden shales helped to settle the question, for among the specimens exhibited today in the Urwelt-Museum at Hauff is a remarkable fossil of a four-meter-long female ichthyo-saur caught in the process of giving birth, with four other embryos still contained inside the mother's body. The half-born ichthyo-saur stuck in the birth canal must have exhausted its mother during labor her strength to swim to the surface to inhale air might have failed, causing her to drown with her unborn young. This remarkable fossil captures one of the rarest...